Orbivirus

VIRION

Non enveloped, icosahedral, non-turreted virion with a triple capsid structure, about 80 nm in diameter. The intermediate capsid has a T=13 icosahedral symmetry, the inner capsid a T=2* icosahedral symmetry.

Virion maturation schemes
Virion structure at ViperDB!

GENOME

Segmented linear dsRNA genome. Contains 10 segments coding for 12 proteins. Segments size range from 822 to 3,954 bp (BTV). Genome total size is 19,200 bp (BTV).

GENE EXPRESSION

The dsRNA genome is never completely uncoated, to prevent activation of antiviral state by the cell in response to dsRNA. The viral polymerase VP1 synthesizes a capped mRNA from each dsRNA segment. This capped mRNA is translocated to the cell cytoplasm where it is translated. VP6(a), NS3(a) and NS4 are presumably expressed by leaky scanning

REPLICATION

CYTOPLASMIC

  1. Attachement to host receptors mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis of virus into host cell.
  2. Particles are partially uncoated in endolysosomes, but not entirely, and penetrate in the cytoplasm.
  3. Early transcription of the dsRNA genome by viral polymerase occurs inside this sub-viral particle (naked core), so that dsRNA is never exposed to the cytoplasm.
  4. Full-length plus-strand transcripts from each of the dsRNA segments are synthesized. These plus-strand transcripts are used as templates for translation.
  5. Viral proteins and genomic RNAs aggregates in cytoplasmic viral factories.
  6. (+)RNAs are encapsidated in a sub-viral particle, in which they are transcribed to give RNA (-) molecules with which they become base-paired to produce dsRNA genomes.
  7. The capsid is assembled on the sub-viral particle.
  8. Mature virions are released presumably following cell death and associated breakdown of host plasma membrane.

Host-virus interaction

Apoptosis modulation

Bluetongue virus mediates host cell apoptosis via caspases activaton (caspases-8, caspases-9, caspase-3, and caspase-7) .

Innate immune response inhibition

Bluetongue virus NS4 protein might also be involved in counteracting the antiviral response of the host .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

101 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 11 complete proteome entries)

11 entries

Bluetongue virus 10 (isolate USA) (BTV 10) reference strain

Select_allDeselect_all
VP5_BTV10 Outer capsid protein VP5
VP3_BTV10 Core protein VP3 (Major inner capsid protein)
VP6A_BTV10 Protein VP6-A (Minor inner core protein VP6-A)
VNS2_BTV10 Non-structural protein NS2
VP4_BTV10 Core protein VP4
VP8_BTV10 Non-structural protein P8 (Non-structural protein NS3) [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]
VP7_BTV10 Core protein VP7
VP2_BTV10 Outer capsid protein VP2
VP6B_BTV10 Protein VP6-B (Minor inner core protein VP6-B)
RDRP_BTV10 RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (VP1)
VNS1_BTV10 Non-structural protein NS1

8 entries

Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate South Africa) (BTV 1)

Select_allDeselect_all
VP2_BTV1S Outer capsid protein VP2
VP5_BTV1S Outer capsid protein VP5
VP7_BTV1S Core protein VP7
VNS1_BTV1S Non-structural protein NS1
VNS2_BTV1S Non-structural protein NS2
VP3_BTV1S Core protein VP3 (Major inner capsid protein)
VP8_BTV1S Non-structural protein P8 (Non-structural protein NS3) [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]
VP6_BTV1S Protein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)

8 entries

Bluetongue virus 11 (isolate USA) (BTV 11)

Select_allDeselect_all
VP7_BTV11 Core protein VP7
VNS1_BTV11 Non-structural protein NS1
VP6_BTV11 Protein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)
VP5_BTV11 Outer capsid protein VP5
VP2_BTV11 Outer capsid protein VP2
VP4_BTV11 Core protein VP4
VP3_BTV11 Core protein VP3 (Major inner capsid protein)
VP8_BTV11 Non-structural protein P8 (Non-structural protein NS3) [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]

8 entries

Bluetongue virus 13 (isolate USA) (BTV 13)

Select_allDeselect_all
VP7_BTV13 Core protein VP7
VP8_BTV13 Non-structural protein P8 (Non-structural protein NS3) [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]
VP5_BTV13 Outer capsid protein VP5
VP6_BTV13 Protein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)
VNS1_BTV13 Non-structural protein NS1
VP3_BTV13 Core protein VP3 (Major inner capsid protein)
VP4_BTV13 Core protein VP4
VP2_BTV13 Outer capsid protein VP2

8 entries

Bluetongue virus 17 (isolate USA) (BTV 17)

Select_allDeselect_all
VP8_BTV17 Non-structural protein P8 (Non-structural protein NS3) [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]
VP3_BTV17 Core protein VP3 (Major inner capsid protein)
VNS1_BTV17 Non-structural protein NS1
VP6_BTV17 Protein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)
VP2_BTV17 Outer capsid protein VP2
VP5_BTV17 Outer capsid protein VP5
VP7_BTV17 Core protein VP7
VNS2_BTV17 Non-structural protein NS2

7 entries

African horse sickness virus 4 (AHSV-4)

Select_allDeselect_all
VP2_AHSV4 Outer capsid protein VP2
VNS3_AHSV4 Non-structural protein NS3 [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]
VP3_AHSV4 Core protein VP3
VP7_AHSV4 Core protein VP7 (Capsid protein VP7) (VP7 antigen)
VP5_AHSV4 Outer capsid protein VP5
VP4_AHSV4 Core protein VP4 (Inner capsid protein VP4)
VNS1_AHSV4 Non-structural protein NS1 (Hydrophobic tubular protein)

7 entries

African horse sickness virus 6 (AHSV-6)

Select_allDeselect_all
VP2_AHSV6 Outer capsid protein VP2
VNS1_AHSV6 Non-structural protein NS1
VP6_AHSV6 Protein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)
VNS3_AHSV6 Non-structural protein NS3 [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]
VP3_AHSV6 Core protein VP3
VP7_AHSV6 Core protein VP7 (Capsid protein VP7) (VP7 antigen)
VP5_AHSV6 Outer capsid protein VP5

7 entries

Bluetongue virus 2 (isolate USA) (BTV 2)

Select_allDeselect_all
VP7_BTV2A Core protein VP7
VP6_BTV2A Protein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)
VP8_BTV2A Non-structural protein P8 (Non-structural protein NS3) [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]
VNS1_BTV2A Non-structural protein NS1
VP4_BTV2A Core protein VP4
VP5_BTV2A Outer capsid protein VP5
VP3_BTV2A Core protein VP3 (Major inner capsid protein)

6 entries

African horse sickness virus 9 (AHSV-9)

Select_allDeselect_all
VNS3_AHSV9 Non-structural protein NS3 [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]
VNS1_AHSV9 Non-structural protein NS1
VNS2_AHSV9 Non-structural protein NS2
VP7_AHSV9 Core protein VP7 (Capsid protein VP7) (VP7 antigen)
VP5_AHSV9 Outer capsid protein VP5
RDRP_AHSV9 RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (VP1)

6 entries

Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate Australia) (BTV 1)

Select_allDeselect_all
VP3_BTV1A Core protein VP3 (Major inner capsid protein)
VP7_BTV1A Core protein VP7
VNS1_BTV1A Non-structural protein NS1
VP5_BTV1A Outer capsid protein VP5
VP8_BTV1A Non-structural protein P8 (Non-structural protein NS3) [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]
VP2_BTV1A Outer capsid protein VP2

4 entries

Broadhaven virus (BRD)

Select_allDeselect_all
VP5_BRD Outer capsid protein VP5
VP2_BRD Structural core protein VP2
VP7_BRD Core protein VP7
VNS3_BRD Non-structural protein NS3 [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]

4 entries

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus 1 (EHDV-1)

Select_allDeselect_all
VP2_EHDV1 Outer capsid protein VP2
VP3_EHDV1 Core protein VP3
VP5_EHDV1 Outer capsid protein VP5
VP7_EHDV1 Core protein VP7

3 entries

African horse sickness virus 3 (AHSV-3)

Select_allDeselect_all
VNS3_AHSV3 Non-structural protein NS3 [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]
VP6_AHSV3 Protein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)
VP2_AHSV3 Outer capsid protein VP2

2 entries

Bluetongue virus 13 (isolate 13B89Z) (BTV 13)

Select_allDeselect_all
VP6_BTVBZ Protein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)
NS4_BTVBZ Protein NS4

2 entries

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (strain Alberta) (EHDV-2)

Select_allDeselect_all
VNS2_EHDV2 Non-structural protein NS2
VNS1_EHDV2 Non-structural protein NS1 (Hydrophobic tubular protein)

1 entry

African horse sickness virus 1 (AHSV-1)

VNS3_AHSV1 Non-structural protein NS3 [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]

1 entry

African horse sickness virus 2 (AHSV-2)

VNS3_AHSV2 Non-structural protein NS3 [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]

1 entry

African horse sickness virus 5 (AHSV-5)

VNS3_AHSV5 Non-structural protein NS3 [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]

1 entry

African horse sickness virus 7 (AHSV-7)

VNS3_AHSV7 Non-structural protein NS3 [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]

1 entry

African horse sickness virus 8 (AHSV-8)

VNS3_AHSV8 Non-structural protein NS3 [Cleaved into: Non-structural protein NS3A]

1 entry

Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate South Africa vaccine) (BTV 1)

VP2_BTV1V Outer capsid protein VP2

1 entry

Bluetongue virus 10 (BTV 10)

VNS2_BTV1X Non-structural protein NS2

1 entry

Bluetongue virus 20 (isolate Australia) (BTV 20)

VNS1_BTV20 Non-structural protein NS1

1 entry

Bluetongue virus 3 (isolate South Africa vaccine) (BTV 3)

VP2_BTV3V Outer capsid protein VP2

1 entry

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (strain Australia) (EHDV-2)

VP3_EHDVA Core protein VP3