Non-enveloped, round, T=1 icosahedral symmetry, 18-26 nm in diameter. The capsid consists of 60 copies of CP protein.


Linear, ssDNA genome of about 4 to 6 kb in size. Equal amount of positive and negative strands are encapsidated, although the percentage of particles encapsidating the positive strand can be lower depending on the host cell. ORFs for both the structural and non-structural proteins are located on the same DNA strand.
The genome is replicated through rolling-hairpin mechanism.


Host proteins transcribe the genomes into mRNAs. Alternative splicing allows expression of both structural and non-structural proteins.



  1. Attachement to host receptors initiates clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the virion into the host cell.
  2. The virion penetrates into the cytoplasm via permeabilization of host endosomal membrane.
  3. Microtubular transport of the virion toward the nucleus.
  4. The viral ssDNA genome penetrates into the nucleus.
  5. The ssDNA is converted into dsDNA by cellular proteins.
  6. dsDNA transcription gives rise to viral mRNAs when host cell enters S phase and translated to produce viral proteins.
  7. Replication occurs through rolling-hairpin mechanism, with NS1 endonuclease binding covalently to the 5' genomic end.
  8. Individual ssDNA genomes are excised from replication concatemers by a process called junction resolution.
  9. These newly synthesized ssDNA can either
    a) be converted to dsDNA and serve as a template for transcription/replication
    b) be encapsidated to form new virions that are released by cell lysis.

Host-virus interaction

Apoptosis modulation

Parvoviruses infection induces host cell death, which is often directly associated with disease outcomes. B19V NS1 and 11kDa proteins induce apoptosis via the activation of caspases .

Cell-cycle modulation

B19V also induces G2/M checkpoint arrest .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

7 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

1 entry

Host-modulation protein 11K (Host-modulation protein of 11 kDa)

Human parvovirus B19 (strain HV) (HPV B19) reference strain

1 entry

Uncharacterized protein 7.5K (Uncharacterized protein of 7.5 kDa)

Human parvovirus B19 (strain HV) (HPV B19) reference strain

2 entries

Capsid protein VP1

Human parvovirus B19 (strain HV) (HPV B19) reference strain
Human parvovirus B19 (isolate AU) (HPV B19)

Capsid protein VP1 (Coat protein VP1)

1 entry

Non-structural protein 1

Human parvovirus B19 (strain HV) (HPV B19) reference strain

1 entry

Non-capsid protein NS-1 (NCVP1) (Non-structural protein NS1)

Human parvovirus B19 (isolate AU) (HPV B19)

1 entry

Uncharacterized protein X

Human parvovirus B19 (strain HV) (HPV B19) reference strain