Virus Family Viral protein Primary receptor(s) Entry receptor(s) entry mode
Bovine coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus Spike glycoprotein Sialic acids [Carbohydrate] ?
Bovine viral diarrhea virus Flaviviridae,
Pestivirus
E1/E2 CD46 [Receptor] ? Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Classical swine fever virus Flaviviridae,
Pestivirus
E1/E2 Heparan sulfate [polysaccharide]
CD46 [Receptor]
?
Coxsackievirus A9 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrin αV β3 [Integrin]
Integrin αV β6 [Integrin]
Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Coxsackievirus A21 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 CD55 [Complement regulator] ICAM-1 [Ig-like]
Coxsackievirus B1 to B6 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 CXADR [Ig-like]
Coxsackievirus B1, B3, B5 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 CD55 [Complement regulator] CXADR [Ig-like] Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Dengue virus Flaviviridae,
Flavivirus
Envelope protein E Heparan sulfate [polysaccharide]
CLEC5A [Lectin]
DC-SIGN [C-Type lectin]
- Serotype1:RPSA? [Laminin receptor] Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Encephalomyocarditis virus Picornaviridae, Cardiovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 Vcam1 [Ig-like]
Echovirus 1 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrin α2 β1 [Integrin] Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Echovirus 8 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrin α2 β1 [Integrin]
Echovirus 6, 7, 11, 12, 20 and 21 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 CD55 [Complement regulator] ?
Enterovirus 70 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 Sialic acids [Carbohydrate]
CD55 [Complement regulator]
?
Enterovirus 71 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 Sialic acids [Carbohydrate] SCARB2 [Lysosome transport]
SELPLG [adhesion molecule]
->SCARB2: Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
->SELPLG: Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Foot-and-mouth disease virus Picornaviridae, Aphthovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrins αV β(1,3,8,6) [Integrin] Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Hepatitis A virus Picornaviridae, Hepatovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 HAVCR1 [Ig-like] ?
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus E1 and E2 proteins Heparan sulfate [Glycosaminoglycan]
LDLR [Endocytic receptor]
DC-SIGN [C-Type lectin]
CLDN1 [Tight junction protein]
CD81? [Cell surface antigen]
SCARB2? [Lysosome transport]
(TFRC?)
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Human coronavirus 229E Coronaviridae, Alphacoronavirus Spike glycoprotein CLEC4M(L-SIGN) ANPEP [Membrane peptidase] Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Human coronavirus OC43 Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus Spike glycoprotein Sialic acids [Carbohydrate] ?
Human parechovirus 1 Picornaviridae, Parechovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 Integrin αVβ3 [Integrin] Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Japanese encephalitis virus Flaviviridae,
Pestivirus
E Heparan sulfate [Peptidoglycan] ? Clathrin independent endocytosis
Major group rhinovirus (e.g. HRV14) Picornaviridae, Enterovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 ICAM1 [Ig-like] Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis
Minor group rhinovirus (e.g. HRV2) Picornaviridae, Enterovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 LDLR family [Endocytic receptor] Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Mouse hepatitis virus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus Spike glycoprotein Ceacam1 [biliary glycoprotein] Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Poliovirus Picornaviridae, Enterovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 PVR [Ig-like] Clathrin/caveolin-independent endocytosis and Caveolin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus Coronaviridae, Alphacoronavirus Spike glycoprotein ANPEP [Membrane peptidase] Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Arteriviridae, Arterivirus GP5 SIGLEC1 [Sialoadhesin] Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Rhinovirus 87 Picornaviridae, Enterovirus VP1, VP2 and VP3 Sialic acids [Carbohydrate]
CD55? [Complement regulator]
?
SARS coronavirus Coronaviridae, Betacoronavirus Spike glycoprotein ACE2 Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Sindbis virus Togaviridae,
Alphavirus
E2 glycoprotein Heparan sulfate [Peptidoglycan] RPSA [Laminin receptor] Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus Coronaviridae, Alphacoronavirus Spike glycoprotein ANPEP [Membrane peptidase]
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Togaviridae,
Alphavirus
E2 glycoprotein RPSA [Laminin receptor] Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
West Nile virus Flaviviridae,
Flavivirus
Envelope protein E Integrin αVβ3? [Integrin] Clathrin-mediated endocytosis