RNA suppression of termination

Suppression of termination (also referred to as stop codon readthrough) is an alternate mechanism of translation to produce a protein with an extended C-terminus. It is used as a regulatory strategy by a large number of plant, animal and prokaryot viruses (see table below).
UAG amber and UGA opal codons are normally recognized by a release factor (eRF) instead of a tRNA, thereby stopping translation. Readthrough of these stop codons occurs when a tRNA partially recognizes UGA or UAG and allows translation to proceed further. This readthrough is induced either by a pseudoknot (MMTV) or by few nucleotides sequence after the stop. The readthrough signals of prokaryote, plant and mammal viruses are different and have different mechanisms which are still poorly understood. The efficiency of suppression of termination is globally poor: 5 to 30%.

The picture below describes MMTV suppression of termination.

Family Genus/TD> Virus RefSeq STOP codon Insertion Efficiency Position Reference
Leviviridae Allolevivirus Enterobacteria phage Qbeta NC_001890 UGA (opal) Trp 5% 1742
Carmotetraviridae Alphacarmotetravirus Providence virus NC_014126 UAG (amber) 2104
Luteoviridae Enamovirus Pea enation mosaic virus 1 NC_003629 UGA (opal) 4566
Luteovirus Barley yellow dwarf virus NC_004750 UAG (amber) 3458
Polerovirus Potato leafroll virus NC_001747 UAG (amber) 4317
Reoviridae Coltivirus Colorado tick fever virus NC_004180 UGA (opal) 1052
Retroviridae Gammaretrovirus Moloney murine leukemia virus NC_001501 UAG (amber) Gln 4-10% 1974
Epsilonretrovirus Walleye dermal sarcoma virus NC_001867 UAG (amber) 2545
Togaviridae Alphavirus Sindbis virus NC_001547 UGA (opal) - 10% 7598
Tombusviridae Aureusvirus Pothos latent virus NC_000939 UAG (amber) 791
Avenavirus Oat chlorotic stunt virus NC_003633 UAG (amber) 684
Carmovirus Carnation mottle virus NC_001265 UAG (amber) 805
Machlomovirus Maize chlorotic mottle virus NC_003627 UAG (amber) 1451
UGA (opal) 3199
Alphanecrovirus Tobbaco necrosis virus A NC_001777 UAG (amber) 666
Panicovirus Panicium mosaic virus NC_002598 UAG (amber) 1304
Tombusvirus Tomato bushy stunt virus NC_001554 UAG (amber) 1054
Virgaviridae Furovirus Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus NC_001367 UGA (opal) 4032
NC_002042 UGA (opal) 862
Pecluvirus Peanut clump virus NC_003672 UGA (opal) 3567
Pomovirus Potato mop-top virus NC_003723 UGA (opal) 4024
NC_003724 UAG (amber) 842
Tobamovirus Tobacco mosaic virus NC_002041 UGA (opal) Tyr, Gln, Leu 31% 3417
Tobravirus Tobacco rattle virus NC_003805 UGA (opal) Trp 5-25% 3764

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

78 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 75 complete proteome entries)

2 entries

Maize chlorotic mottle virus (isolate United States/Kansas/1987) (MCMV) reference strain

Select_allDeselect_all
P31_MCMVK Uncharacterized protein p31 [Cleaved into: Uncharacterized protein p7]
RDRP_MCMVK RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (111 kDa protein) (Protein p111) [Cleaved into: Protein ...

1 entry

Barley yellow dwarf virus (isolate PAV) (BYDV) reference strain

MCAPS_BYDVP Minor capsid protein (P74) (Readthrough protein) (RT protein)

1 entry

Carnation mottle virus (isolate China/Shanghai) (CarMV) reference strain

RDRP_CARMS Probable RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p88) [Cleaved into: Protein p28]

1 entry

Chikungunya virus (strain S27-African prototype) (CHIKV) reference strain

POLN_CHIKS Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; mRNA-capping enzyme ...

1 entry

Colorado tick fever virus (strain USA/Florio N-7180) (CTFV) reference strain

VP9P_CTFVL Non structural protein VP9'

1 entry

Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (strain watermelon SH) (CGMMV) reference strain

RDRP_CGMVS Replicase large subunit (EC 2.7.7.48) (186 kDa protein) [Cleaved into: Replicase small subunit (EC ...

1 entry

Enterobacteria phage MX1 (Bacteriophage MX1) reference strain

A1_BPMX1 Minor capsid protein A1

1 entry

Enterobacteria phage SP (Bacteriophage SP) reference strain

A1_BPSP Minor capsid protein A1

1 entry

Moloney murine leukemia virus (isolate Shinnick) (MoMLV) reference strain

POL_MLVMS Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr180gag-pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p15 (MA); RNA-binding ...

1 entry

Oat chlorotic stunt virus (isolate United Kingdom) (OCSV) reference strain

RDRP_OCSVU RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p84) [Cleaved into: Protein p23]

1 entry

Panicum mosaic virus (strain United States/Kansas 109S) (PMV) reference strain

RDRP_PMVK RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p112) [Cleaved into: Protein p48]

1 entry

Pea enation mosaic virus-1 (strain WSG) (PEMV-1) reference strain

RDRP_PEMVW Protein P1-P2 [Cleaved into: Serine protease (EC 3.4.21.-); RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC ...

1 entry

Potato leafroll virus (strain Potato/Scotland/strain 1/1984) (PLrV) reference strain

MCAPS_PLRV1 Minor capsid protein P3-RTD (P74) (Readthrough protein) (RT protein)

1 entry

Pothos latent virus (isolate Pigeonpea/India) (PoLV) reference strain

RDRP_POLVP RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p84) [Cleaved into: Protein p25]

1 entry

Semliki forest virus (SFV) reference strain

POLN_SFV Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; mRNA-capping enzyme ...

1 entry

Sindbis virus (SINV) reference strain

POLN_SINDV Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

Sunn-hemp mosaic virus (SHMV) (TMV strain cowpea) reference strain

RDRP_SHMV Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Tobacco mosaic virus (strain OM) (TMV) reference strain

RDRP_TMVOM Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Tobacco mosaic virus (strain vulgare) (TMV) (Tobacco mosaic virus (strain U1)) reference strain

RDRP_TMV Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Tobacco necrosis virus (strain A) (TNV-A) reference strain

RDRP_TNVA RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p82) [Cleaved into: Protein p23]

1 entry

Tomato bushy stunt virus (strain Cherry) (TBSV) reference strain

RDRP_TBSVC RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p92) [Cleaved into: Protein p33]

1 entry

Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) reference strain

RDRP_TCV RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p88) [Cleaved into: Protein p28]

1 entry

Turnip vein-clearing virus (TVCV) reference strain

RDRP_TVCV Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Turnip yellows virus (isolate FL-1) (TuYV) (BWYV-FL1) reference strain

MCAPS_TYYVF Minor capsid protein P3-RTD (P74) (Readthrough protein) (RT protein)

1 entry

Walleye dermal sarcoma virus (WDSV) reference strain

POL_WDSV Gag-Pol polyprotein [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p10 (MA); p20; Capsid protein p25 (CA); ...

1 entry

Xenotropic MuLV-related virus (isolate VP62) (XMRV) reference strain

POL_XMRV6 Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr180gag-pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p15 (MA); RNA-binding ...

1 entry

AKV murine leukemia virus (AKR (endogenous) murine leukemia virus)

POL_MLVAV Pol polyprotein [Cleaved into: Protease (EC 3.4.23.-); Reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H (RT) (EC ...

1 entry

Aura virus (AURAV)

POLN_AURAV Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

Baboon endogenous virus (strain M7)

POL_BAEVM Pol polyprotein [Cleaved into: Protease (EC 3.4.23.-); Reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H (RT) (EC ...

1 entry

Barmah forest virus (BFV)

POLN_BFV Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

Carnation mottle virus (CarMV)

RDRP_CARMV RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p88) [Cleaved into: Protein p28]

1 entry

Chikungunya virus (strain 37997) (CHIKV)

POLN_CHIK3 Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; mRNA-capping enzyme ...

1 entry

Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV)

RDRP_CNV RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p92) [Cleaved into: Protein p33]

1 entry

Cymbidium ringspot virus (CymRSV)

RDRP_CRV RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p92) [Cleaved into: Protein p33]

1 entry

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (strain Florida 91-469) (EEEV) (Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus)

POLN_EEEVF Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (strain PE-0.0155) (EEEV) (Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus)

POLN_EEEV1 Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (strain PE-3.0815) (EEEV) (Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus)

POLN_EEEV8 Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

Friend murine leukemia virus (isolate 57) (FrMLV)

POL_MLVF5 Pol polyprotein [Cleaved into: Protease (EC 3.4.23.-); Reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H (RT) (EC ...

1 entry

Friend murine leukemia virus (isolate FB29) (FrMLV)

POL_MLVFF Pol polyprotein [Cleaved into: Protease (EC 3.4.23.-); Reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H (RT) (EC ...

1 entry

Friend murine leukemia virus (isolate PVC-211) (FrMLV)

POL_MLVFP Pol polyprotein [Cleaved into: Protease (EC 3.4.23.-); Reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H (RT) (EC ...

1 entry

Getah virus (GETV)

POLN_GETV Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

Gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV)

POL_GALV Pol polyprotein [Cleaved into: Protease (EC 3.4.23.-); Reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H (RT) (EC ...

1 entry

Koala retrovirus (KoRV)

POL_KORV Pro-Pol polyprotein (Pr125Pol) [Cleaved into: Protease/Reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H (EC ...

1 entry

Mayaro virus (strain Brazil) (MAYV)

POLN_MAYAB Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

O'nyong-nyong virus (strain Gulu) (ONNV)

POLN_ONNVG Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; mRNA-capping enzyme ...

1 entry

O'nyong-nyong virus (strain Igbo Ora) (ONNV) (Igbo Ora virus)

POLN_ONNVI Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; mRNA-capping enzyme ...

1 entry

O'nyong-nyong virus (strain SG650) (ONNV)

POLN_ONNVS Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; mRNA-capping enzyme ...

1 entry

Odontoglossum ringspot virus (isolate Korean Cy) (ORSV-Cy)

RDRP_ORSVC Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Odontoglossum ringspot virus (isolate Singapore 1) (ORSV)

RDRP_ORSVS Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Pepper mild mottle virus (strain Japan) (PMMV-J)

RDRP_PMMVJ Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Pepper mild mottle virus (strain Spain) (PMMV-S)

RDRP_PMMVS Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Potato leafroll virus (strain Potato/Netherlands/Wageningen/1989) (PLrV)

MCAPS_PLRVW Minor capsid protein P3-RTD (P74) (Readthrough protein) (RT protein)

1 entry

Radiation murine leukemia virus

POL_MLVRD Pol polyprotein [Cleaved into: Protease (EC 3.4.23.-); Reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H (RT) (EC ...

1 entry

Ross river virus (strain NB5092) (RRV)

POLN_RRVN Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; mRNA-capping enzyme ...

1 entry

Sagiyama virus (SAGV)

POLN_SAGV Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

Salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV)

POLN_SPDV Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; mRNA-capping enzyme ...

1 entry

Sindbis virus subtype Ockelbo (strain Edsbyn 82-5) (OCKV) (Ockelbo virus)

POLN_SINDO Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

Sleeping disease virus (SDV)

POLN_SLDV Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; mRNA-capping enzyme ...

1 entry

Tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV) (TMV strain U2)

RDRP_TMGMV Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Tobacco mosaic virus (strain B935A) (TMV)

RDRP_TMVB Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Tobacco mosaic virus (strain Korean NC 82) (TMV)

RDRP_TMVKR Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Tobacco mosaic virus (strain Rakkyo) (TMV-R)

RDRP_TMVRA Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Tobacco necrosis virus (strain D) (TNV-D)

RDRP_TNVD RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (Protein p82) [Cleaved into: Protein p23]

1 entry

Tobamovirus Ob

RDRP_TMOB Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Tomato mosaic virus (strain Kazakh K1) (ToMV) (TMV strain K1)

RDRP_TOMK1 Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Tomato mosaic virus (strain Kazakh K2) (ToMV) (TMV strain K2)

RDRP_TOMK2 Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Tomato mosaic virus (strain L) (ToMV) (TMV strain tomato)

RDRP_TOML Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Tomato mosaic virus (strain S-1) (ToMV)

RDRP_TOMS1 Replicase large subunit (EC 2.1.1.-) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 2.7.7.48) (EC 3.6.4.13) (183 kDa protein) ...

1 entry

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (strain 3880) (VEEV)

POLN_EEVV3 Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (strain CPA201) (VEEV)

POLN_EEVVC Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (strain Mena II) (VEEV)

POLN_EEVVM Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (strain P676) (VEEV)

POLN_EEVVP Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (strain Trinidad donkey) (VEEV)

POLN_EEVVT Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV)

POLN_WEEV Non-structural polyprotein (Polyprotein nsP1234) (P1234) [Cleaved into: P123; P123'; mRNA-capping ...

1 entry

Xenotropic MuLV-related virus (isolate VP35) (XMRV)

POL_XMRV3 Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr180gag-pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p15 (MA); RNA-binding ...

1 entry

Xenotropic MuLV-related virus (isolate VP42) (XMRV)

POL_XMRV4 Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr180gag-pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p15 (MA); RNA-binding ...

1 entry

Youcai mosaic virus (YoMV) (Oilseed rape mosaic virus)

RDRP_YOMV Replicase large subunit (EC 2.7.7.48) (182 kDa protein) [Cleaved into: Replicase small subunit (EC ...