Modulation of host NK-cell activity by virus

Nks cells originate from the bone marrow and represent about 5 to 10 % of the lymphocytes in the blood. They belong to the first line of defenses against viruses and thus reprensent an important part of the innate immune system. Upon activation, NK cells lyse the infected cells or release cytokines such as interferon gamma, which activates macrophages and T-cells. Theses functions help to control infection during initial hours allowing the adaptive immune response to develop. Many viruses have evolved strategies to inhibit NK cells activity to allow efficient infection. For example, a lot of herpesvirus proteins function to evade NK cell activation. In addtion to the attenuation of the adaptive response, these proteins allow persistent infection within the host.

Table. Viruses modulating the activity of NK cells.

Virus Family Viral protein Ation References
HCMV herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus US2, US11 Causes degradation of MHC class I by proteasomes
HCMV herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus US3, US10 Retention of MHC class I in ER
HCMV herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus US6 Prevents loading of peptide into MHC I molecules
HCMV herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus gpUL40 Downregulates MHC I molecules from cell surface
HIV Retroviridae, Lentivirus Nef Accelerates HLA-A and B endocytosis
MCMV herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus m04 Binds MHC I on cell surface
MCMV herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus m06 Targets MHC class I for degradation
MCMV herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus m152 Downregulates MHC I form cell surface
MOCV Poxviridae, Molluscipoxvirus MC53L ,MC54L Binds IL-18, blocks INF-gamma production
HCV Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus E2 Binds CD81 receptor on NK cells inhibition killing and cytokine production
KSHV Herpesviridae, Rhadinovirus K3, K5 Induces MHC class I endocytosis
HHV-1 Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus ICP47 Prevents loading of peptides into MHC I

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

8 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

2 entries

Protein UL135

Select_allDeselect_all
UL135_HCMVM
Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain
UL135_HCMVT
Human cytomegalovirus (strain Towne) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5)

1 entry

Protein UL141

UL141_HCMVM
Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

1 entry

Protein UL16

UL16P_HCMVA
Human cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

2 entries

Glycoprotein UL18

Select_allDeselect_all
UL18_HCMVA
Human cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain
UL18_HCMVM
Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

Membrane glycoprotein UL18

2 entries

Protein UL40

Select_allDeselect_all
UL40_HCMVA
Human cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain
UL40_HCMVM
Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain