Decay of host mRNAs by virus

Viruses have evolved ways of degrading host mRNAs to favor their survival and maximize expression of their own mRNAs. Inducing cellular mRNAs degradation eventually leads to shutoff of host proteins expression and gives viruses transcripts a competitive edge for access to the cellular translation machinery and counteract the antiviral response.
Most viruses proceed by expressing an endonuclease that cleaves host mRNAs, which are in turn degraded by an host exonuclease, like Xrn1 in mammals .

During the lytic replication cycle of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), SOX protein promotes massive cellular mRNAs decay through an endonucleotic internal cleavage of host mRNAs. The resulting RNA fragments are eliminated by the cellular RNA degradation machinery.

During the lytic replication cycle of Human herpesvirus 1 (HSV-1), VHS protein triggers accelerated degradation of host mRNAs and also seems to relocalize PABP. VHS would specifically target actively translated mRNAs through interactions with host EIF4F components (e.g. EIF4H, EIF4B, EIF4A2 ) and degrade them by endonucleotic RNA cleavage.

SARS NSP1 binds to 40s ribosomes and induces endonucleotic RNA cleavage of host mRNAs leading to their degradation. The presence of a 5'-end leader sequence protects SARS mRNAs from NSP1 cleavage.

Influenza A virus PA-X protein encoded on segment 3 by ribosomal frameshifting may have a messenger RNA endonuclease activity and play a role in the observed reduced cellular protein synthesis.

Viruses inducing host mRNA decay:

(Sub)Family Virus Viral protein mRNA decay strategy references
Coronaviridae SARS-CoV,bat-Cov ( Betacoronavirus ) NSP1 Endonucleotic mRNAs cleavage
Gammaherpesvirinae HHV-8/KSHV Shutoff alkaline exonuclease Endonucleotic mRNAs cleavage
MHV68 Shutoff alkaline exonuclease Endonucleotic mRNAs cleavage
EBV Shutoff alkaline exonuclease ?
Orthomyxoviridae Influenza A virus PA-X protein Endonucleotic mRNAs cleavage
Alphaherpesvirinae HHV-1 VHS protein Endonucleotic mRNAs cleavage

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

56 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 52 complete proteome entries)

6 entries

Shutoff alkaline exonuclease (SOX) (EC 3.1.-.-)

Select_allDeselect_all
AN_ALHV1
Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (strain C500) (AlHV-1) (Malignant catarrhal fever virus) reference strain
AN_EBVA8
Epstein-Barr virus (strain AG876) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain
AN_EBVB9
Epstein-Barr virus (strain B95-8) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain
AN_EBVG
Epstein-Barr virus (strain GD1) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain
AN_EHV2
Equine herpesvirus 2 (strain 86/87) (EHV-2) reference strain
AN_HHV8P
Human herpesvirus 8 type P (isolate GK18) (HHV-8) (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) reference strain

19 entries

Replicase polyprotein 1a (pp1a) (ORF1a polyprotein)

Select_allDeselect_all
R1A_BCHK4
Bat coronavirus HKU4 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/HKU4/2004) reference strain
R1A_BCHK9
Bat coronavirus HKU9 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/HKU9) reference strain
R1A_CVEMC
Human coronavirus EMC (isolate United Kingdom/H123990006/2012) (HCoV-EMC) reference strain
R1A_CVHN1
Human coronavirus HKU1 (isolate N1) (HCoV-HKU1) reference strain
R1A_CVHOC
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) reference strain
R1A_CVHSA
Human SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) reference strain
R1A_CVM2
Murine coronavirus (strain 2) (MHV-2) (Murine hepatitis virus) reference strain
R1A_CVMA5
Murine coronavirus (strain A59) (MHV-A59) (Murine hepatitis virus) reference strain
R1A_BC133
Bat coronavirus 133/2005 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/133/2005)
R1A_BC279
Bat coronavirus 279/2005 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/279/2005)
R1A_BCHK3
Bat coronavirus HKU3 (BtCoV) (SARS-like coronavirus HKU3)
R1A_BCRP3
Bat coronavirus Rp3/2004 (BtCoV/Rp3/2004) (SARS-like coronavirus Rp3)
R1A_CVBEN
Bovine coronavirus (strain 98TXSF-110-ENT) (BCoV-ENT) (BCV)
R1A_CVBLU
Bovine coronavirus (strain 98TXSF-110-LUN) (BCoV-LUN) (BCV)
R1A_CVBM
Bovine coronavirus (strain Mebus) (BCoV) (BCV)
R1A_CVBQ
Bovine coronavirus (strain Quebec) (BCoV) (BCV)
R1A_CVHN2
Human coronavirus HKU1 (isolate N2) (HCoV-HKU1)
R1A_CVHN5
Human coronavirus HKU1 (isolate N5) (HCoV-HKU1)
R1A_CVMJH
Murine coronavirus (strain JHM) (MHV-JHM) (Murine hepatitis virus)

20 entries

Replicase polyprotein 1ab (pp1ab) (ORF1ab polyprotein)

Select_allDeselect_all
R1AB_BCHK4
Bat coronavirus HKU4 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/HKU4/2004) reference strain
R1AB_BCHK5
Bat coronavirus HKU5 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/HKU5/2004) reference strain
R1AB_BCHK9
Bat coronavirus HKU9 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/HKU9) reference strain
R1AB_CVEMC
Human coronavirus EMC (isolate United Kingdom/H123990006/2012) (HCoV-EMC) reference strain
R1AB_CVHN1
Human coronavirus HKU1 (isolate N1) (HCoV-HKU1) reference strain
R1AB_CVHOC
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) reference strain
R1AB_CVHSA
Human SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) reference strain
R1AB_CVM2
Murine coronavirus (strain 2) (MHV-2) (Murine hepatitis virus) reference strain
R1AB_CVMA5
Murine coronavirus (strain A59) (MHV-A59) (Murine hepatitis virus) reference strain
R1AB_BC133
Bat coronavirus 133/2005 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/133/2005)
R1AB_BC279
Bat coronavirus 279/2005 (BtCoV) (BtCoV/279/2005)
R1AB_BCHK3
Bat coronavirus HKU3 (BtCoV) (SARS-like coronavirus HKU3)
R1AB_BCRP3
Bat coronavirus Rp3/2004 (BtCoV/Rp3/2004) (SARS-like coronavirus Rp3)
R1AB_CVBEN
Bovine coronavirus (strain 98TXSF-110-ENT) (BCoV-ENT) (BCV)
R1AB_CVBLU
Bovine coronavirus (strain 98TXSF-110-LUN) (BCoV-LUN) (BCV)
R1AB_CVBM
Bovine coronavirus (strain Mebus) (BCoV) (BCV)
R1AB_CVBQ
Bovine coronavirus (strain Quebec) (BCoV) (BCV)
R1AB_CVHN2
Human coronavirus HKU1 (isolate N2) (HCoV-HKU1)
R1AB_CVHN5
Human coronavirus HKU1 (isolate N5) (HCoV-HKU1)
R1AB_CVMJH
Murine coronavirus (strain JHM) (MHV-JHM) (Murine hepatitis virus)

11 entries

Virion host shutoff protein (Vhs) (EC 3.1.27.-)

Select_allDeselect_all
SHUT_EHV1B
Equine herpesvirus 1 (strain Ab4p) (EHV-1) (Equine abortion virus) reference strain
SHUT_GAHVM
Gallid herpesvirus 2 (strain Chicken/Md5/ATCC VR-987) (GaHV-2) (Marek's disease herpesvirus type 1) reference strain
SHUT_HHV11
Human herpesvirus 1 (strain 17) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1) reference strain
SHUT_HHV2H
Human herpesvirus 2 (strain HG52) (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2) reference strain
SHUT_PSHV1
Psittacid herpesvirus 1 (isolate Amazon parrot/-/97-0001/1997) (PsHV-1) (Pacheco's disease virus) reference strain
SHUT_VZVD
Varicella-zoster virus (strain Dumas) (HHV-3) (Human herpesvirus 3) reference strain
SHUT_EHV1V
Equine herpesvirus 1 (strain V592) (EHV-1) (Equine abortion virus)
SHUT_HHV1K
Human herpesvirus 1 (strain KOS) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1)
SHUT_HHV23
Human herpesvirus 2 (strain 333) (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2)
SHUT_HHV2G
Human herpesvirus 2 (strain G) (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2)
SHUT_SUHVK
Suid herpesvirus 1 (strain Kaplan) (SuHV-1) (Pseudorabies virus (strain Kaplan))