Lytic replication: Most non-enveloped virus, and few enveloped viruses require cell lysis in order to release new virions from the infected cell. Cell lysis is actively induced by viruses using various mechanisms:
Viroporins: Some eukaryotic lytic viruses like the Adenoviridae, and Picornaviridae encode viroporins in the late phase of infection in order to disrupt the cell membrane.
Lytic phospholipids: Phycodnaviridae may induce the synthesis of lytic phospholipids .
Bacteria lysis: All bacterial viruses are lytic, except filamentous phages and plasmaviridae. Most bacteriophages with a complex capsid use the endolysins/holins/spanins lysis mechanism. Microviridae and Leviviridae inhibit cell wall biosynthesis and induce cytolysis.
Occasional lysis: Many viruses can induce cell lysis under special circumstance.
Occlusion body: In the late phase of host infection some viruses induce the formation of a crystalline protein matrix that ends up with cell lysis. The viruses trapped in the occlusion body are often involved in a host-to-host infection. This strategy is used by Baculoviridae, insects infecting Iridoviridae, Cypovirus and insects infecting Poxviridae.
Immune response: In vertebrate hosts, infected cell lysis can be induced by natural killer cells or cytotoxic T cells responding to the infection.