Enveloped, spherical to pleomorphic, 150-200 nm in diameter, T=16 icosahedral symmetry. Capsid consists of 162 capsomers and is surrounded by an amorphous tegument. Glycoproteins complexes are embedded in the lipid envelope.


Monopartite, linear, dsDNA genome of about 180 kb. The genome contains terminal and internal reiterated sequences.


Each viral transcript usually encodes a single protein and has a promoter/regulatory sequence, a TATA box, a transcription initiation site, a 5' leader sequence of 30-300 bp (not translated), a 3' untranslated sequence of 10-30 bp, and a poly A signal. There are many gene overlaps. There are only few spliced genes. Some of the expressed ORFs are antisense to each other. Some ORFs can be accessed from more than one promoter. Certain proteins are downregulated translationaly by a leaky scanning from an upstream ORF.



Lytic replication:

  1. Attachment of the viral glycoproteins to host receptors mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell.
  2. Fusion with the plasma membrane to release the core and the tegument proteins into the host cytoplasm.
  3. The capsid is transported to the nuclear pore where the viral DNA is released into the nucleus.
  4. Transcription of immediate early genes which promote transcription of early genes and protect the virus against innate host immunity.
  5. Transcription of early viral mRNA by host polymerase II, encoding proteins involved in replication of the viral DNA.
  6. A first round of circular genome amplification occurs by bidirectional replication
  7. Synthesis of linear concatemer copies of viral DNA by rolling circle.
  8. Transcription of late mRNAs by host polymerase II, encoding structural proteins.
  9. Assembly of the virus in nuclear viral factories and budding through the inner lamella of the nuclear membrane which has been modified by the insertion of herpes glycoproteins, throughout the Golgi and final release at the plasma membrane.

Latent replication : replication of circular viral episome in tandem with the host cell DNA using the host cell replication machinery.

Host-virus interaction

Adaptive immune response inhibition

Kaposi proteins MIR1/K3 and MIR2/K5 are E3 ubiquitin ligase which promote the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of host MHC-I and CD1D molecules, thereby inhibiting the host adaptive immune response.

Apoptosis modulation

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes a viral FLICE inhibitory protein (vFLIP) that blocks apoptosis .

Autophagy modulation

The KSHV v-Bcl-2 inhibits host autophagy by interacting with host beclin-1 .

Cell-cycle modulation

KSHV v-cyclin encoded by ORF72, is a cyclin-like protein that shares homology to cellular D-type cyclins. Like human cyclins, v-cyclin interacts with cdk4 and cdk6 to activate these kinases and promote the G1/S phase transition. The conserved UL24 family of human alpha, beta and gamma herpesviruses induces a cell cycle arrest at G2/M transition through inactivation of the host cyclinB/cdc2 complex. EBV encodes an UL24 homolog termed ORF20 that should perform this role .

Innate immune response inhibition

Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) has developed unique mechanisms to modulate host immune system by incorporating viral homologs to several cellular regulatory genes into its genome. For instance, vIRF-1 is able to bind to both IRF-3 and IRF-7 and efficiently inhibits the formation of transcriptionally competent IRF-3-CBP/p300 complexes .

Splicing inhibition

KSHV ORF57 modulates the viral and host mRNA expression by exporting unspliced mRNA, thereby inducing alternative splicing .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

181 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

85 entries

Human herpesvirus 8 type P (isolate GK18) (HHV-8) (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) reference strain

PRIM_HHV8P DNA primase (EC 2.7.7.-)
UL95_HHV8P Protein UL95 homolog
VFLIP_HHV8P Viral FLICE protein (vFLIP)
TRM3_HHV8P Tripartite terminase subunit 3 (EC 3.1.-.-) (Terminase large subunit)
UL32_HHV8P Packaging protein UL32 homolog
SCAF_HHV8P Capsid scaffolding protein (Capsid protein P40) (Protease precursor) (pPR) [Cleaved into: Assemblin ...
ORF48_HHV8P Tegument protein ORF48
KITH_HHV8P Thymidine kinase (EC
ORF27_HHV8P Protein ORF27
OX2V_HHV8P OX-2 membrane glycoprotein homolog (Viral OX2) (vOX2)
ORF35_HHV8P Protein ORF35
UNG_HHV8P Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) (EC (UNG)
TEG7_HHV8P Tegument protein ORF55
VIRF4_HHV8P Viral IRF4-like protein (vIRF-4)
TRM1_HHV8P Tripartite terminase subunit 1
UL79_HHV8P Protein UL79 homolog
VMI2_HHV8P Viral macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (Viral macrophage inflammatory protein II) (vMIP-II) ...
VIRF3_HHV8P Viral IRF3-like protein (VIRF-3)
ORF52_HHV8P Tegument protein ORF52
PAP_HHV8P DNA polymerase processivity factor
RIR1_HHV8P Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC (Ribonucleotide reductase ...
ORF75_HHV8P Protein ORF75
ORF10_HHV8P Protein ORF10
UL24_HHV8P Protein UL24 homolog
GL_HHV8P Envelope glycoprotein L (gL)
UL92_HHV8P Protein ORF31
ORF4_HHV8P Complement control protein (KCP)
ORF11_HHV8P Protein ORF11
RIR2_HHV8P Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase small subunit (EC (Ribonucleotide reductase small ...
SCP_HHV8P Small capsomere-interacting protein
HEPA_HHV8P DNA helicase/primase complex-associated protein (HEPA) (Primase-associated factor)
CVC1_HHV8P Capsid vertex component 1
DYR_HHV8P Putative Dihydrofolate reductase (EC
CEP3_HHV8P Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 3
CEP1_HHV8P Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 1
DUT_HHV8P Deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) (EC (dUTP pyrophosphatase)
ARBH_HHV8P Apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 homolog
AN_HHV8P Shutoff alkaline exonuclease (SOX) (EC 3.1.-.-)
GM_HHV8P Envelope glycoprotein M (gM)
KBZIP_HHV8P E3 SUMO-protein ligase K-bZIP (EC 2.3.2.-) (E3 SUMO-protein transferase K-bZIP)
K1_HHV8P Protein K1
K7_HHV8P Protein K7
DPOL_HHV8P DNA polymerase catalytic subunit (EC (EC
CEP2_HHV8P Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 2
GH_HHV8P Envelope glycoprotein H (gH)
GB_HHV8P Envelope glycoprotein B (gB)
K42_HHV8P Protein K4.2
K81_HHV8P Protein K8.1
K6_HHV8P Protein K6
NEC1_HHV8P Nuclear egress protein 1
MCP_HHV8P Major capsid protein (MCP)
CVC2_HHV8P Capsid vertex component 2
DNBI_HHV8P Major DNA-binding protein
GN_HHV8P Envelope glycoprotein N
ICP27_HHV8P mRNA export factor ICP27 homolog (EB2 protein homolog)
K15_HHV8P Protein K15
K12_HHV8P Protein K12
MIR1_HHV8P E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MIR1 (EC (IE1B protein) (Modulator of immune recognition 1) ...
ORF24_HHV8P Protein ORF24
MIR2_HHV8P E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MIR2 (EC (IE1A protein) (Modulator of immune recognition 2) ...
ORF30_HHV8P Protein ORF30
ORF45_HHV8P Protein ORF45
LTP_HHV8P Large tegument protein deneddylase (EC (EC 3.4.22.-)
HELI_HHV8P DNA replication helicase (EC 3.6.4.-)
ORF28_HHV8P Protein ORF28
VGPCR_HHV8P viral G-protein coupled receptor (vGPCR) (Protein ORF74)
UL49_HHV8P Protein ORF66
TRX1_HHV8P Triplex capsid protein 1
TRX2_HHV8P Triplex capsid protein 2
VIL6_HHV8P Viral interleukin-6 homolog (vIL-6)
VCYCL_HHV8P viral cyclin homolog (v-cyclin)
ITP_HHV8P Inner tegument protein
VIRF2_HHV8P Viral IRF2-like protein (vIRF-2)
TRM2_HHV8P Tripartite terminase subunit 2
TYSY_HHV8P Thymidylate synthase (TS) (TSase) (EC
PORTL_HHV8P Portal protein
ORF50_HHV8P Putative transcription activator ORF50
ORF58_HHV8P Protein ORF58
ORF49_HHV8P Protein ORF49
NEC2_HHV8P Nuclear egress protein 2
ORF23_HHV8P Protein ORF23
VCCL3_HHV8P Protein vCCL3
VPK_HHV8P Viral protein kinase (EC

75 entries

Saimiriine herpesvirus 2 (strain 11) (SaHV-2) (Herpesvirus saimiri) reference strain

RIR1_SHV21 Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC (Ribonucleotide reductase ...
SCAF_SHV21 Capsid scaffolding protein (Capsid protein P40) (Protease precursor) (pPR) [Cleaved into: Assemblin ...
SCP_SHV21 Small capsomere-interacting protein
TEG7_SHV21 Gene 55 protein
UL95_SHV21 Gene 34 protein
PRIM_SHV21 DNA primase (EC 2.7.7.-)
UL91_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 30 protein
UL49_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 66 protein
TSTP_SHV21 Transforming protein STP
TRX2_SHV21 Triplex capsid protein 2
VG58_SHV21 Gene 58 protein
VG48_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 48 protein
NEC2_SHV21 Nuclear egress protein 2
KITH_SHV21 Thymidine kinase (EC
MCP_SHV21 Major capsid protein (MCP)
NEC1_SHV21 Nuclear egress protein 1
UNG_SHV21 Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) (EC (UNG)
VG28_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 28 protein
VG71_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 71 protein
VG11_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 11 protein
VIEG_SHV21 Immediate-early protein IE-G
VG40_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 40 protein
VP75_SHV21 Probable membrane antigen 75 (Tegument protein)
VP03_SHV21 Probable membrane antigen 3 (Tegument protein)
UL24_SHV21 Protein UL24 homolog
VG45_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 45 protein
VG41_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 41 protein
TRM1_SHV21 Tripartite terminase subunit 1
VG49_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 49 protein
RIR2_SHV21 Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase small subunit (EC (Ribonucleotide reductase small ...
HELI_SHV21 DNA replication helicase (EC 3.6.4.-)
CCPH_SHV21 Complement control protein homolog (CCPH)
DPOL_SHV21 DNA polymerase catalytic subunit (EC
CVC1_SHV21 Capsid vertex component 1
CEP3_SHV21 Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 3
CGH2_SHV21 Cyclin homolog (V-cyclin)
CEP1_SHV21 Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 1
CEP2_SHV21 Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 2
DYR_SHV21 Viral dihydrofolate reductase (vDHFR) (EC
AN_SHV21 Shutoff alkaline exonuclease (SOX) (EC 3.1.-.-)
CD59_SHV21 Surface glycoprotein CD59 homolog
GCVK_SHV21 Probable ganciclovir kinase (EC 2.7.1.-)
GM_SHV21 Envelope glycoprotein M (gM)
IL17_SHV21 Viral interleukin-17 (vIL-17) (Immediate early gene 13 protein)
CVC2_SHV21 Capsid vertex component 2
BRLF1_SHV21 Putative transcription activator BRLF1 homolog (Transcription activator EDRF1)
GH_SHV21 Envelope glycoprotein H (gH)
DUT_SHV21 Deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) (EC (dUTP pyrophosphatase)
ICP22_SHV21 Transcriptional regulator ICP22 homolog (Immediate-early protein)
DNBI_SHV21 Major DNA-binding protein
ICP27_SHV21 mRNA export factor ICP27 homolog (52 kDa immediate-early phosphoprotein) (EB2 protein homolog)
GL_SHV21 Envelope glycoprotein L (gL)
ITP_SHV21 Inner tegument protein
GN_SHV21 Envelope glycoprotein N
LTP_SHV21 Large tegument protein deneddylase (EC (EC 3.4.22.-)
VG16_SHV21 Bcl-2-like gene 16 protein
VG51_SHV21 Gene 51 glycoprotein
VG59_SHV21 Gene 59 protein
VG10_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 10 protein
UL79_SHV21 Gene 18 protein
TYSY_SHV21 Thymidylate synthase (TS) (TSase) (EC
GB_SHV21 Envelope glycoprotein B (gB)
VG12_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 12 protein
VG27_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 27 protein
VG23_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 23 protein
UL92_SHV21 Gene 31 protein
UL87_SHV21 Gene 24 protein
VG74_SHV21 G-protein coupled receptor homolog ECRF3
TRX1_SHV21 Triplex capsid protein 1
PORTL_SHV21 Portal protein
VG52_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 52 protein
UL96_SHV21 Gene 35 protein
TRM3_SHV21 Tripartite terminase subunit 3 (EC 3.1.-.-) (Terminase large subunit)
UL32_SHV21 Packaging protein UL32
VG05_SHV21 Uncharacterized gene 5 protein

3 entries

Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) (Murine gammaherpesvirus 68) reference strain

LTP_MHV68 Large tegument protein deneddylase (EC (EC 3.4.22.-)
ARBH_MHV68 Apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 homolog (vBcl-2) (Protein M11)
MIR1_MHV68 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MIR1 (EC (MK3) (Modulator of immune recognition 1 homolog) ...

1 entry

Ateline herpesvirus 3 (AtHV-3) (Herpesvirus ateles) reference strain

TIO_ATHV3 Protein tio

6 entries

Saimiriine herpesvirus 2 (strain 488) (SaHV-2) (Herpesvirus saimiri)

TIP_SHV2C Tyrosine-protein kinase-interacting protein (Tip)
STP_SHV2C Saimiri transformation-associated protein (Collagen-like protein) (stpC)
YDH4_SHV2C Uncharacterized 9.9 kDa protein in DHFR 3'region (ORF4)
DYR_SHV2C Viral dihydrofolate reductase (vDHFR) (EC
IL17_SHV2C Viral interleukin-17 (vIL-17) (Immediate early gene 13 protein)
YDH3_SHV2C Uncharacterized 9.5 kDa protein in DHFR 3'region (ORF3)

3 entries

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (strain DN-599) (BoHV-4) (Movar virus)

BRLF1_BHV4D Putative transcription activator BRLF1 homolog
GCNT3_BHV4D Beta-1,3-galactosyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC ...
VIE1_BHV4D Probable E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase IE1 (EC (32.7 kDa immediate early protein IE1) ...

3 entries

Saimiriine herpesvirus 2 (strain 484-77) (SaHV-2) (Herpesvirus saimiri)

STP_SHV24 Saimiri transformation-associated protein (Collagen-like protein) (stpC)
DYR_SHV24 Viral dihydrofolate reductase (vDHFR) (EC
TIP_SHV24 Tyrosine-protein kinase-interacting protein (Tip)

1 entry

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) (Movar virus)

GCNT3_BHV4 Beta-1,3-galactosyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC ...

1 entry

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (strain LVR140) (BoHV-4) (Movar virus)

GCNT3_BHV4L Beta-1,3-galactosyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC ...

1 entry

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (strain V. test) (BoHV-4) (Movar virus)

GCNT3_BHV4V Beta-1,3-galactosyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC ...

1 entry

Herpesvirus ateles

TYSY_HSVAT Thymidylate synthase (TS) (TSase) (EC

1 entry

Saimiriine herpesvirus 2 (strain 484) (SaHV-2) (Herpesvirus saimiri)

TIP_SHV48 Tyrosine protein kinase-interacting protein (Tip) (TipC484)