Degradation of host cell envelope components during virus entry

At the onset of the infective process, bacterial viruses are usually confronted with the penetration of a complex host cell envelope. Gram-negative bacterial envelope usually comprises a cell membrane, a thin periplasmic peptidoglcan cell wall covered with an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharides (LPS). By contrast, Gram-positive bacterial envelope lacks the outer membrane, but has a much thicker peptidoglycan layer containing cell-wall glycopolymers. Moreover, these cell-envelope structures can be surrounded by other protective structures such as capsular polysaccharides (e.g. α2,8-linked polysialic acid (PSA), Hyaluronic acid (HA)), S-layer proteins or mucolic acids.

Bacterial viruses must be equipped to be able to penetrate through all these layers. Virions carry the necessary enzymatic activities to perforate the capsule, slime and peptidoglycan layers of their specific host. LPS-binding virions usually degrade these polysaccharides chains after attachment.

capsule LPS PG

Virus Family Host bacteria Surface component type Phage degrading enzyme ref.
Phage φ92 Myoviridae E.coli (K1, K5, K92), Salmonella strains PSA, capsular Endosialidase gp143
Phage K1A Podoviridae Escherichia coli PSA, capsular Endosialidase
Phage K1E Podoviridae Escherichia coli PSA, capsular Endosialidase
Phage K1F Podoviridae Escherichia coli PSA, capsular Endosialidase
Phage 63D Siphoviridae - PSA, capsular Endosialidase
Phage K1-5 Podoviridae Escherichia coli PSA, capsular Endosialidase
Phage CUS-3 Podoviridae Escherichia coli PSA, capsular Endosialidase
Phage PT-6 unclassified Pseudomonas aeruginosa Alginate, capsular Alginate lyase
Phage H4489A unclassified Streptococcus pyogenes HA, capsular Hyaluronidase
Phage 370.1 Siphoviridae Streptococcus pyogenes HA, capsular HylP1, HylP2, HylP3
Phage H10403 unclassified Streptococcus pyogenes HA, capsular Hyaluronoglucosaminidase
Phage AF Podoviridae Pseudomonas putida EPS, capsular EPS hydrolase
Phage P27 - Salmonella typhimurium LPS Endorhamnosidase
Phage 9NA - Salmonella typhimurium LPS Endorhamnosidase
Phage KB-1 - Salmonella typhimurium LPS Endorhamnosidase
Phage Det7 Myoviridae Salmonella typhimurium LPS Endorhamnosidase
Phage Sf6 Podoviridae Shigella flexneri LPS Endorhamnosidase
Phage ε15 Podoviridae LPS Endorhamnosidase
Phage HK620 Podoviridae Escherichia coli H LPS Tail spike endo-N-acetylglucosaminidase
Phage GA-1 Podoviridae Bacillus G1R Peptidoglycan gp3
Phage SPβ Siphoviridae Bacillus subtilis Peptidoglycan YomI
Phage SPO1 Myoviridae Bacillus subtilis Peptidoglycan -
Phage SPP1 Siphoviridae Bacillus subtilis Peptidoglycan -
Phage M2 Podoviridae Bacillus subtilis Peptidoglycan gp3
Phage φ29 Podoviridae Bacillus subtilis Peptidoglycan gp3
Phage PRD1 Tectiviridae Escherichia coli Peptidoglycan p7
Phage T3 Podoviridae Escherichia coli Peptidoglycan gp16
Phage K1-5 Podoviridae Escherichia coli Peptidoglycan orf35
PSA, capsular Endosialidase
Phage N4 Podoviridae Escherichia coli Peptidoglycan -
Phage T4 Podoviridae Escherichia coli Peptidoglycan gp5
Phage T5 Siphoviridae Escherichia coli Peptidoglycan Pb2
Phage C1 Podoviridae Escherichia coli Peptidoglycan -
Phage φ949 - Lactococcus lactis Peptidoglycan -
Phage φ31 Siphoviridae Lactococcus lactis Peptidoglycan -
Phage φc2 Myoviridae Lactococcus lactis Peptidoglycan -
Phage φr1t - Lactococcus lactis Peptidoglycan -
Phage φ6 Cystoviridae Pseudomonas syringae Peptidoglycan P5
Phage φ13 Cystoviridae Pseudomonas syringae Peptidoglycan -
Phage SP6 Podoviridae Salmonella typhimurium Peptidoglycan orf35
Phage P22 Podoviridae Salmonella typhimurium Peptidoglycan gp4
LPS Endorhamnosidase
Phage φYeO3-12 Podoviridae Yersinia enterocolitica Peptidoglycan gp16
Phage φKMV Podoviridae Pseudomonas aeruginosa Peptidoglycan gp36
Phage φKZ Myoviridae Pseudomonas aeruginosa Peptidoglycan gp181
Phage T7 Podoviridae Escherichia coli Peptidoglycan gp16

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

28 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

3 entries

Bacillus phage phi29 (Bacteriophage phi-29) reference strain

Select_allDeselect_all
TERM_BPPH2 Primer terminal protein (TP) (DNA terminal protein) (Gene product 3) (gp3) (Protein p3) (Terminal ...
GP13_BPPH2 Morphogenesis protein 1 (Gene product 13) (gp13) (Protein p13) [Includes: Lysozyme-like glycosidase ...
FIB12_BPPH2 Pre-neck appendage protein (Gene product 12) (gp12) (NP1) (Protein p12) [Cleaved into: gp12*]

2 entries

Salmonella phage P22 (Bacteriophage P22) reference strain

Select_allDeselect_all
EXLYS_BPP22 Peptidoglycan hydrolase gp4 (Gene product 4) (Gp4) (Internal virion protein gp4) (Tail adapter ...
FIBER_BPP22 Tail spike protein (TSP) (Endo-1,3-alpha-L-rhamnosidase) (EC 3.2.1.-) (Endorhamnosidase) (Gene ...

1 entry

Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont phage 1 (Bacteriophage APSE-1) reference strain

EXLYS_BPAPS Peptidoglycan hydrolase gp27 (Gene product 27) (Gp27) (Internal virion protein gp27)

1 entry

Bacillus phage SPbeta (Bacillus phage SPBc2) (Bacteriophage SP-beta) reference strain

TMP_BPSPB Probable tape measure protein (TMP) (Transglycosylase) (EC 4.2.2.n1)

1 entry

Enterobacteria phage PRD1 (Bacteriophage PRD1) reference strain

EXLYS_BPPRD Transglycosylase (EC 4.2.2.n1) (Protein P7)

1 entry

Enterobacteria phage SP6 (Bacteriophage SP6) reference strain

EXLYS_BPSP6 Peptidoglycan hydrolase gp36 (Gene product 36) (Gp36)

1 entry

Enterobacteria phage T4 (Bacteriophage T4) reference strain

NEEDL_BPT4 Pre-baseplate central spike protein Gp5 (Pre-Gp5) (Peptidoglycan hydrolase gp5) (EC 3.2.1.17) ...

1 entry

Escherichia phage K1F (Bacteriophage K1F) reference strain

FIBER_BPK1F Tail spike protein (TSP) (Endo-N-acetylneuraminidase) (Endo-N) (EC 3.2.1.129) (Endo-alpha-sialidase) ...

1 entry

Escherichia phage T5 (Enterobacteria phage T5) reference strain

TMP_BPT5 Probable tape measure protein (Tail protein pb2)

1 entry

Escherichia phage T7 (Bacteriophage T7) reference strain

EXLYS_BPT7 Peptidoglycan transglycosylase gp16 (EC 4.2.2.n1) (Internal core protein gp16)

1 entry

Pseudoalteromonas phage PM2 (Bacteriophage PM2) reference strain

EXLYS_BPPM2 Peptidoglycan hydrolase P7 (Protein VII)

1 entry

Pseudomonas phage phi6 (Bacteriophage phi-6) reference strain

EXLYS_BPPH6 Peptidoglycan hydrolase gp5 (Gene product 5) (Gp5)

1 entry

Pseudomonas phage phiKMV reference strain

EXLYS_BPKMV Peptidoglycan hydrolase gp36 (EC 3.2.1.17) (Gene product 36) (Gp36)

1 entry

Pseudomonas phage phiKZ reference strain

EXLYS_BPDPK Peptidoglycan hydrolase gp181 (Gene product 181) (Gp181)

1 entry

Salmonella phage epsilon15 reference strain

FIBER_BPE15 Tail spike protein (TSP) (Endorhamnosidase) (EC 3.2.1.-) (Gene product 20) (gp20)

3 entries

Bacillus phage PZA (Bacteriophage PZA)

Select_allDeselect_all
TERM_BPPZA DNA terminal protein (Gene product 3) (gp3) (Protein p3)
GP13_BPPZA Morphogenesis protein 1 (Gene product 13) (gp13) (Protein p13) [Includes: Lysozyme-like glycosidase ...
FIB12_BPPZA Preneck appendage protein (Gene product 12) (gp12) (Protein p12) [Cleaved into: gp12*]

2 entries

Bacillus phage B103 (Bacteriophage B103)

Select_allDeselect_all
TERM_BPB03 DNA terminal protein (Gene product 3) (gp3) (Protein p3)
FIB12_BPB03 Pre-neck appendage protein (Gene product 12) (gp12) (Late protein GP12) (NP1) (Protein p12)

1 entry

Bacillus phage Nf (Bacteriophage Nf)

TERM_BPNF DNA terminal protein (Gene product 3) (gp3) (Protein p3)

1 entry

Escherichia phage K1E (Bacteriophage K1E)

FIBER_BPK1E Tail spike protein (TSP) (Endo-N-acetylneuraminidase) (Endo-N) (EC 3.2.1.129) (Endo-alpha-sialidase) ...

1 entry

Shigella phage Sf6 (Shigella flexneri bacteriophage VI) (Bacteriophage SfVI)

FIBER_BPSFV Tail spike protein (TSP) (Endo-1,3-alpha-L-rhamnosidase) (EC 3.2.1.-) (Endorhamnosidase)

1 entry

Streptococcus pyogenes phage H10403

HYLP2_BPH45 Hyaluronoglucosaminidase (Hyaluronidase) (EC 3.2.1.35)

1 entry

Streptococcus pyogenes phage H4489A

HYLP1_BPH44 Hyaluronoglucosaminidase (Hyaluronidase) (EC 3.2.1.35)