Degradation of host peptidoglycans during virus entry (kw:KW-1236)

Exolysin are viral lytic enzymes allowing digestion of bacterial cell wall upon virus entry. This activity is necessary for the virus to reach the host plasma membrane and inject its DNA in the host cytoplasm. The degradation is local, the virion drills a hole large enough to have its tail or capsid pass the wall.

Depending on the enzymatic specificity, exolysins are divided into five main classes.


Virus family Host bacteria phage enzyme ref.
Phage GA-1 Podoviridae Bacillus G1R gp3
Phage SPβ Siphoviridae Bacillus subtilis YomI
Phage SPO1 Myoviridae Bacillus subtilis -
Phage SPP1 Siphoviridae Bacillus subtilis -
Phage M2 Podoviridae Bacillus subtilis gp3
Phage φ29 Podoviridae Bacillus subtilis gp3
Phage PRD1 Tectiviridae Escherichia coli p7
Phage T3 Podoviridae Escherichia coli gp16
Phage K1-5 Podoviridae Escherichia coli orf35
Phage N4 Podoviridae Escherichia coli -
Phage T4 Podoviridae Escherichia coli gp5
Phage T5 Siphoviridae Escherichia coli Pb2
Phage C1 Podoviridae Escherichia coli -
Phage φ949 Unclassified Lactococcus lactis -
Phage φ31 Siphoviridae Lactococcus lactis -
Phage φc2 Myoviridae Lactococcus lactis -
Phage φr1t Unclassified Lactococcus lactis -
Phage φ6 Cystoviridae Pseudomonas syringae P5
Phage φ13 Cystoviridae Pseudomonas syringae -
Phage SP6 Podoviridae Salmonella typhimurium orf35
Phage φP22 Podoviridae Salmonella typhimurium gp4
Phage φYeO3-12 Podoviridae Yersinia enterocolitica gp16
Phage φKMV Podoviridae Pseudomonas aeruginosa gp36
Phage φKZ Myoviridae Pseudomonas aeruginosa gp181
Phage T7 Podoviridae Escherichia coli gp16

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

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18 entries grouped by strain

2 entries

Bacillus phage phi29 (Bacteriophage phi-29) reference strain

TERM_BPPH2 Primer terminal protein (TP) (DNA terminal protein) (Gene product 3) (gp3) (Protein p3) (Terminal ...
GP13_BPPH2 Morphogenesis protein 1 (Gene product 13) (gp13) (Protein p13) [Includes: Lysozyme-like glycosidase ...

1 entry

Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont phage 1 (Bacteriophage APSE-1) reference strain

EXLYS_BPAPS Peptidoglycan hydrolase gp27 (Gene product 27) (Gp27) (Internal virion protein gp27)

1 entry

Bacillus phage SPbeta (Bacillus phage SPBc2) (Bacteriophage SP-beta) reference strain

TMP_BPSPB Probable tape measure protein (TMP) (Transglycosylase) (EC 4.2.2.n1)

1 entry

Enterobacteria phage PRD1 (Bacteriophage PRD1) reference strain

EXLYS_BPPRD Transglycosylase (EC 4.2.2.n1) (Protein P7)

1 entry

Enterobacteria phage SP6 (Bacteriophage SP6) reference strain

EXLYS_BPSP6 Peptidoglycan hydrolase gp36 (Gene product 36) (Gp36)

1 entry

Enterobacteria phage T4 (Bacteriophage T4) reference strain

NEEDL_BPT4 Pre-baseplate central spike protein Gp5 (Pre-Gp5) (Peptidoglycan hydrolase gp5) (EC ...

1 entry

Escherichia phage T5 (Enterobacteria phage T5) reference strain

TMP_BPT5 Tape measure protein pb2 precursor (TMP-pb2) (Pore-forming protein pb2) (Tail protein pb2) [Cleaved ...

1 entry

Escherichia phage T7 (Bacteriophage T7) reference strain

EXLYS_BPT7 Peptidoglycan transglycosylase gp16 (EC 4.2.2.n1) (Internal core protein gp16)

1 entry

Pseudoalteromonas phage PM2 (Bacteriophage PM2) reference strain

EXLYS_BPPM2 Peptidoglycan hydrolase P7 (Protein VII)

1 entry

Pseudomonas phage phi6 (Bacteriophage phi-6) reference strain

EXLYS_BPPH6 Peptidoglycan hydrolase gp5 (Gene product 5) (Gp5)

1 entry

Pseudomonas phage phiKMV reference strain

EXLYS_BPKMV Peptidoglycan hydrolase gp36 (EC (Gene product 36) (Gp36)

1 entry

Pseudomonas phage phiKZ reference strain

EXLYS_BPDPK Peptidoglycan hydrolase gp181 (Gene product 181) (Gp181)

1 entry

Salmonella phage P22 (Bacteriophage P22) reference strain

EXLYS_BPP22 Peptidoglycan hydrolase gp4 (Gene product 4) (Gp4) (Internal virion protein gp4) (Tail adapter ...

2 entries

Bacillus phage PZA (Bacteriophage PZA)

TERM_BPPZA DNA terminal protein (Gene product 3) (gp3) (Protein p3)
GP13_BPPZA Morphogenesis protein 1 (Gene product 13) (gp13) (Protein p13) [Includes: Lysozyme-like glycosidase ...

1 entry

Bacillus phage B103 (Bacteriophage B103)

TERM_BPB03 DNA terminal protein (Gene product 3) (gp3) (Protein p3)

1 entry

Bacillus phage Nf (Bacteriophage Nf)

TERM_BPNF DNA terminal protein (Gene product 3) (gp3) (Protein p3)