Viral exotoxin

Bacteriophage-encoded toxins (e.g. botulism toxin, diphtheria toxin, cholera toxin, and Shiga toxin) are secreted polypeptides that modulate the virulence of the host bacteria. Exotoxin genes carried by bacteriophages are responsible for many of the symptoms associated with human diseases.

Expression of any virulence factor can benefit the bacterium host, the bacterial population, and the encoding phage/prophage .


Bacteriophage-encoded exotoxins

Source:Common themes among bacteriophage-encoded virulence factors and diversity among the bacteriophages involved .

Virus Host bacteria Virulence factor Gene Type Disease (third eukaryotic organism)
β-phage Corynebacterium diphtheriae Diphtheria toxin tox Exotoxin Diphteria
Phage C1 Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin C1 Exotoxin Botulism
Phage H-19B, Enterobacteria phage 933W Escherichia coli Shiga toxin 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B stx1AB
stx2AB
Exotoxin Dysentery
Phage CTXΦ Vibrio cholerae Cholera toxin A, B ctxAB Exotoxin Cholera
Phage ΦC3208 Escherichia coli Hemolysin hly2
stx2AB
Exotoxin Hemolysis
Phage ΦCTX Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cytotoxin ctx Exotoxin Cytotoxicity (especially on leukocytes)
Phage N315 Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin P sep Exotoxin Vomiting
Phage Mu50A Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin A sea Exotoxin Food poisoning syndrome
Phage Φ13 Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin A entA Exotoxin Gastroenteritis
Phage ΦETA Staphylococcus aureus Exfoliative toxin A eta Exotoxin Scaled-skin syndrom
Phage ΦPVL Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin S, F lukS Exotoxin Leukocytes destruction
Phage T12 Streptococcus pyogenes Toxin A speA Exotoxin Scarlet fever
Phage CS112 Streptococcus pyogenes Toxin C speC Exotoxin Scarlet fever