Enveloped, spherical to pleomorphic, 120-200 nm in diameter, T=16 icosahedral symmetry. Capsid consists of 162 capsomers and is surrounded by an amorphous tegument. Glycoproteins complexes are embeded in the lipid envelope.


Monopartite, linear, dsDNA genome of about 150 kb. The genome contains terminal and internal reiterated sequences. The genome sequence is repeated at one end. Each virion contains multiple isomeric forms of the genome


Each viral transcript usually encodes a single protein and has a promoter/regulatory sequence, a TATA box, a transcription initiation site, a 5' leader sequence of 30-300 bp (not translated), a 3' nontranslated sequence of 10-30 bp, and a poly A signal. There are many gene overlaps. There are only few spliced genes. Some of the expressed ORFs are antisense to each other. Some ORFs can be accessed from more than one promoter. There are some non-coding genes.

There are three types of genes: immediate-early, early and late. The immediate-early genes are transcribed immediately after infection and ensure the transcription of early genes, which encode the proteins necessary for the viral replication. The late genes mostly encode structural proteins. Standing apart are genes expressed during latency.

The viral proteins VHS and ICP27 are involved in shut-off of host protein translation in order to ensure the selective expression of viral proteins versus cellular proteins.



Lytic replication:

  1. Attachment of the viral gB, gC, gD and gH proteins to host receptors mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell.
  2. Fusion with the plasma membrane to release the core and the tegument proteins into the host cytoplasm.
  3. The capsid is transported to the nuclear pore where the viral DNA is released into the nucleus.
  4. Transcription of immediate early genes which promote transcription of early genes and protect the virus against innate host immunity.
  5. Transcription of early viral mRNA by host polymerase II, encoding proteins involved in replication of the viral DNA.
  6. A first round of circular genome amplification occurs by bidirectional replication
  7. Synthesis of linear concatemer copies of viral DNA by rolling circle.
  8. Transcription of late mRNAs by host polymerase II, encoding structural proteins.
  9. Assembly of the virus in nuclear viral factories and budding through the inner lamella of the nuclear membrane which has been modified by the insertion of herpes glycoproteins, throughout the Golgi and final release at the plasma membrane.

Latent replication : replication of circular viral episome in tandem with the host cell DNA using the host cell replication machinery.

Host-virus interaction

Cell-cycle modulation

The conserved UL24 family of human alpha, beta and gamma herpesviruses induces a cell cycle arrest at G2/M transition through inactivation of the host cyclinB/cdc2 complex. Iltoviruses encode an UL24 homolog that should fullfill this role.

Host splicing inhibition

PsHV-1 UL54 is an alternative splicing regulator of host mRNA.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

78 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

71 entries

Psittacid herpesvirus 1 (isolate Amazon parrot/-/97-0001/1997) (PsHV-1) (Pacheco's disease virus) reference strain

PORTL_PSHV1 Portal protein
PRIM_PSHV1 DNA primase (EC 2.7.7.-)
SCAF_PSHV1 Capsid scaffolding protein (Capsid protein P40) (Protease precursor) (pPR) [Cleaved into: Assemblin ...
TRM1_PSHV1 Tripartite terminase subunit 1
US03_PSHV1 Protein kinase US3 homolog (EC
UL43_PSHV1 Membrane protein UL43
RIR1_PSHV1 Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC (Ribonucleotide reductase ...
UL01_PSHV1 Uncharacterized protein UL-1
ORFA_PSHV1 Uncharacterized protein ORFA
ORF2_PSHV1 Uncharacterized protein sORF2
UL13_PSHV1 Serine/threonine-protein kinase UL13 (EC
KITH_PSHV1 Thymidine kinase (EC
UL32_PSHV1 Packaging protein UL32
UL03_PSHV1 Uncharacterized protein UL3
TRM3_PSHV1 Tripartite terminase subunit 3 (EC 3.1.-.-) (Terminase large subunit)
SHUT_PSHV1 Virion host shutoff protein (Vhs) (EC 3.1.27.-)
TEG5_PSHV1 Tegument protein UL47 homolog
TEG2_PSHV1 Tegument protein UL11
PAP_PSHV1 DNA polymerase processivity factor (DNA-binding protein UL42) (Polymerase accessory protein) (PAP)
SCP_PSHV1 Small capsomere-interacting protein
OBP_PSHV1 Replication origin-binding protein (OBP) (OriBP)
GL_PSHV1 Envelope glycoprotein L (gL)
ORF3_PSHV1 Uncharacterized protein sORF3/4
MCP_PSHV1 Major capsid protein (MCP)
TEG3_PSHV1 Tegument protein UL14
TRX2_PSHV1 Triplex capsid protein 2
UL20_PSHV1 Protein UL20
UL15B_PSHV1 Large terminase protein homolog UL15b
RIR2_PSHV1 Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase small subunit (EC (Ribonucleotide reductase small ...
ICP27_PSHV1 mRNA export factor (Immediate-early protein IE63) (Infected cell protein 27) (ICP27)
ORFE_PSHV1 Uncharacterized protein ORFE
NP04_PSHV1 Nuclear protein UL4
ORFD_PSHV1 Uncharacterized protein ORFD
ORFC_PSHV1 Uncharacterized protein ORFC
DPOL_PSHV1 DNA polymerase catalytic subunit (EC (EC
DUT_PSHV1 Deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) (EC (dUTP pyrophosphatase)
GI_PSHV1 Envelope glycoprotein I
GK_PSHV1 Envelope glycoprotein K (Syncytial protein)
GE_PSHV1 Envelope glycoprotein E (gE)
GD_PSHV1 Envelope glycoprotein D (gD)
GC_PSHV1 Envelope glycoprotein C
GN_PSHV1 Envelope glycoprotein N
CVC1_PSHV1 Capsid vertex component 1
EV45_PSHV1 Envelope protein UL45
GM_PSHV1 Envelope glycoprotein M (gM)
AN_PSHV1 Alkaline nuclease (EC 3.1.-.-)
ATI2_PSHV1 Alpha trans-inducing factor (Tegument protein UL46) (Tegument protein VP11/12)
CEP1_PSHV1 Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 1
DNBI_PSHV1 Major DNA-binding protein
CVC2_PSHV1 Capsid vertex component 2
CEP2_PSHV1 Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 2
GH_PSHV1 Envelope glycoprotein H (gH)
GG_PSHV1 Glycoprotein G
ICP4_PSHV1 Major viral transcription factor ICP4 homolog
ITP_PSHV1 Inner tegument protein
HEPA_PSHV1 DNA helicase/primase complex-associated protein (HEPA) (Primase-associated factor)
HELI_PSHV1 DNA replication helicase (EC 3.6.4.-)
GB_PSHV1 Envelope glycoprotein B (gB)
NEC1_PSHV1 Nuclear egress protein 1
LTP_PSHV1 Large tegument protein deneddylase (EC (EC 3.4.22.-)
ORFB_PSHV1 Uncharacterized protein ORFB
NEC2_PSHV1 Nuclear egress protein 2
VP22_PSHV1 Tegument protein VP22
US10_PSHV1 Virion protein US10 homolog
TG21_PSHV1 Tegument protein UL21
US02_PSHV1 Uncharacterized protein US2
TRX1_PSHV1 Triplex capsid protein 1
UNG_PSHV1 Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) (EC (UNG)
UL24_PSHV1 Protein UL24
TRM2_PSHV1 Tripartite terminase subunit 2
TEG7_PSHV1 Tegument protein UL51

5 entries

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (strain Thorne V882) (ILTV) (Gallid herpesvirus 1)

SCAF_ILTVT Capsid scaffolding protein (Capsid protein P40) (Protease precursor) (pPR) [Cleaved into: Assemblin ...
CVC2_ILTVT Capsid vertex component 2
GB_ILTVT Envelope glycoprotein B (gB)
KITH_ILTVT Thymidine kinase (EC
UL24_ILTVT Protein UL24 homolog (ORF 3)

1 entry

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (strain 632) (ILTV) (Gallid herpesvirus 1)

GB_ILTV6 Envelope glycoprotein B (gB)

1 entry

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (strain SA-2) (ILTV) (Gallid herpesvirus 1)

GB_ILTVS Envelope glycoprotein B (gB)