Inhibition of host chemokines by virus

Chemokines, or chemotactic cytokines are secreted protein playing an important role in migration of immune cells to a site of viral infection, Th1/Th2 differentiation, and T cell co-stimulation.

Due to the importance of chemokines in immunity, viruses have evolved mechanisms to counter the chemokine network. The level of regulating chemokines can occur at different levels. Some viruses encode viral cytokines, such as cytomegalovirus UL146 (vCXCL1 that targets both CXCR1 and CXCR2 as an agonist), or Molluscum contagiosum virus MC148R that displaces the interaction between CXCL12alpha and CXCR4. These proteins interfere with proper chemokine signaling. Viruses also encode chemokine receptors. For example, HCMV encodes four proteins US27, US28, UL33 and UL78 homologous to human chemokine receptors. US28 receptor expression leads to constitutive activation of the host Galphaq/phospholipase C pathway. HHV-6 and HHV-7 possess also two proteins homologous to chemokine receptor namely U12 and U51 that can function in concert with CCR4 and CCR7 in host-cell signalling pathways. Finally, viruses also interfere with the host chemokines by encoding viral chemokine-binding proteins. For instance, Myxoma virus gamma interferon receptor homolog M-T7 interacts with the heparin-binding domains of chemokines. Glycoprotein G from pseudorabies also virus binds to chemokines with high affinity and inhibits their function.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

14 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

3 entries

Human cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

US27_HCMVA G-protein coupled receptor homolog US27 (HHRF2)
US28_HCMVA G-protein coupled receptor homolog US28 (HHRF3)
UL33_HCMVA G-protein coupled receptor homolog UL33 (vGPCR UL33)

3 entries

Variola virus (isolate Human/India/Ind3/1967) (VARV) (Smallpox virus) reference strain

A41_VAR67 Protein A41
CRMB_VAR67 Cytokine response-modifying protein B (CrmB) (Viral tumor necrosis factor receptor II) (vTNFR)
C23L_VAR67 Chemokine-binding protein (vCKBP) (35 kDa protein)

2 entries

Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

UL33_HCMVM G-protein coupled receptor homolog UL33
CXCL1_HCMVM Chemokine vCXCL1

1 entry

Molluscum contagiosum virus subtype 1 (MOCV) (MCVI) reference strain

MC148_MCV1 Chemokine-like protein MC148

1 entry

Vaccinia virus (strain Western Reserve) (VACV) (Vaccinia virus (strain WR)) reference strain

A41_VACCW Protein A41

1 entry

Variola virus reference strain

CRMB_VARV Cytokine response-modifying protein B (CrmB) (Viral tumor necrosis factor receptor II) (vTNFR)

1 entry

Suid herpesvirus 1 (strain Rice) (SuHV-1) (Pseudorabies virus (strain Rice))

GG_SUHVR Envelope glycoprotein G (gG)

1 entry

Vaccinia virus (strain Copenhagen) (VACV)

A41_VACCC Protein A41

1 entry

Vaccinia virus (strain Lister) (VACV)

C23L_VACCL Chemokine-binding protein (vCKBP) (35 kDa protein)