Modulation of host dendritic cell activity by virus

Dendritic cells are key determinants of viral disease outcome since they are able to trigger immune responses during viral infection. Several viruses prevent cytokine production by dendritic cells in order to facilitate release of progeny. Viruses can interfere at several steps of Denritic cells induced immunity including generation, survival, migration and maturation, as well as processing/presentation of antigen by DCs.

Table. Viruses modulating the activity of dendritic cells.

Virus Family Viral protein References
Measles virus Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus protein V
HCV Flaviviridae, Hepacivirus Core protein
HTLV-1 Retroviridae, Deltaretrovirus Tax
HIV Retroviridae, Lentivirus Vpu
Influenza A Orthomyxoviridae, Influenzavirus A NS1
HHV-1 Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus ICP34.5
Ebola virus Filoviridae, Ebola-like viruses VP35

Modulation of the Immune System by Human Rhinoviruses Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2007;142:1-10 by DC and activation of T-cell responses by DC

Table. Viruses infecting host dendritic cells.

Virus Family References
Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus Arteriviridae, Arterivirus
Herpes simplex virus Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus
HIV1 Retroviridae, Lentivirus
HIV Retroviridae, Lentivirus
Influenza A Orthomyxoviridae, Influenzavirus A NS1
HHV-1 Herpesviridae, Simplexvirus ICP34.5
Ebola virus Filoviridae, Ebola-like viruses VP35