Viral penetration into host cytoplasm


Translocation of the virion or its genetic material from the extracellular space into the host cell cytoplasm. Entry is achieved through pore formation, membrane fusion and/or endocytosis mechanisms. Penetration reactions occur mainly in five locations: the cell membrane, early and late endosomes, caveosomes, and the ER. Many viruses are able to utilize multiple uptake pathways, simultaneously, or depending on the host cell type targeted.