Satellite virus: infection requires host cell to be co-infected with helper virus, possibly Influenza A virus
HDV-Like Viruses. Jimena Perez-Vargas, Remi Pereira de Oliveira, Stephanie Jacquet, Dominique Pontier, Fran??ois-Loic Cosset and Natalia Freitas Viruses. 2021 Jun 23;13(7):1207.
Unknown, discovered using viral metagenomics. presumably enveloped by helper virus.
Circular, ssRNA(-) genome of 1,74 kb. Most of the genome displays complementary strands. Replication occurs by rolling circle, single genome being cleaved/ligated by ribozymes.
A single ORF encodes for HDAg-like protein.
- Virus attaches to host receptors though helper virus surface protein.
- Fusion of virus membrane with the vesicle membrane; RNA genome is released in the cytoplasm and migrates to the nucleus.
- Transcription of HDAg-like protein, promoting viral transcription and replication
- Symmetrical rolling circle replication by host DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II
- Budding by helper HBV proteins.