Hepacivirus

VIRION

Enveloped, spherical, about 50 nm in diameter. Mature virions contain two virus-encoded membrane proteins (E1 and E2) in addition to the capsid protein.

GENOME

Monopartite, linear, ssRNA(+) genome of about 10 kb. The genome 3' terminus is not polyadenylated but forms a loop structure. There is an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at the 5' end that mediates translation initiation.

GENE EXPRESSION

The virion RNA is infectious and serves as both the genome and the viral messenger RNA. The whole genome is translated in a polyprotein, which is processed co- and post-translationally by host and viral proteases.

REPLICATION

  1. Attachement of the viral envelope protein E to host receptors mediates internalization into the host cell by clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
  2. Fusion of virus membrane with host endosomal membrane. RNA genome is released into the cytoplasm.
  3. The positive-sense genomic ssRNA is translated into a polyprotein, which is cleaved into all structural and non structural proteins (to yield the replication proteins).
  4. Replication takes place at the surface of endoplasmic reticulum in cytoplasmic viral factories. A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+). Host miRNA mir-122 plays a essential role in initiating replication.
  5. The dsRNA genome is transcribed/replicated thereby providing viral mRNAs/new ssRNA(+) genomes.
  6. Virus assembly occurs at the endoplasmic reticulum and seems to be facilitated by the viral ionic channel p7. The virion buds at the endoplasmic reticulum and is transported to the Golgi apparatus.
  7. Release of new virions by exocytosis.

Host-virus interaction

Apoptosis modulation

Flaviviruses NS3 induces apoptosis through host caspases activation

Autophagy modulation

Flaviviruses NS4A and NS4B induces autophagy signaling .

Cell-cycle modulation

Hepatitis C virus induces down-regulation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor and G1/S host cell cycle checkpoint dysregulation .

Innate immune response inhibition

Hepatitis C virus inhibits the interferon signaling pathway by blocking the IFN receptors , STAT1 and TYK2 .
Hepatitis C virus inhibits the host IFN-mediated response by blocking host MAVS , TRAFs and TBK1-IKBKE-DDX3 complex .

Host gene expression shutoff by virus

Hepatitis C virus activates PKR about 12h p.i. to shutoff host translation through the PKR-mediated phosphorylation of the eIF2alpha initiation factor .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

35 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

2 entries

Hepatitis C virus genotype 1a (isolate H) (HCV) reference strain

Select_allDeselect_all
F_HCVH F protein (Alternate reading frame protein/F-protein) (ARFP/F) (Frameshifted protein) (p16) (p17)
POLG_HCVH Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

2 entries

Hepatitis C virus genotype 1a (isolate 1) (HCV)

Select_allDeselect_all
F_HCV1 F protein (Alternate reading frame protein/F-protein) (ARFP/F) (Frameshifted protein) (p16) (p17)
POLG_HCV1 Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b (isolate BK) (HCV)

POLG_HCVBK Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b (isolate Con1) (HCV)

POLG_HCVCO Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b (isolate HC-J1) (HCV)

POLG_HCVJ1 Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b (isolate HC-JT) (HCV)

POLG_HCVJT Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b (isolate HCR6) (HCV)

POLG_HCVR6 Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b (isolate Japanese) (HCV)

POLG_HCVJA Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b (isolate Taiwan) (HCV)

POLG_HCVTW Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b (strain HC-J4) (HCV)

POLG_HCVJ4 Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 1c (isolate HC-G9) (HCV)

POLG_HCVH9 Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 1c (isolate India) (HCV)

POLG_HCVIN Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 2a (isolate HC-J6) (HCV)

POLG_HCVJ6 Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 2a (isolate JFH-1) (HCV)

POLG_HCVJF Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 2b (isolate HC-J8) (HCV)

POLG_HCVJ8 Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 2b (isolate JPUT971017) (HCV)

POLG_HCVJP Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 2c (isolate BEBE1) (HCV)

POLG_HCVBB Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 2k (isolate VAT96) (HCV)

POLG_HCVVA Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 3a (isolate NZL1) (HCV)

POLG_HCVNZ Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 3a (isolate k3a) (HCV)

POLG_HCVK3 Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 3b (isolate Tr-Kj) (HCV)

POLG_HCVTR Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 3k (isolate JK049) (HCV)

POLG_HCVJK Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 4a (isolate ED43) (HCV)

POLG_HCVED Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 5a (isolate EUH1480) (HCV)

POLG_HCVEV Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 5a (isolate SA13) (HCV)

POLG_HCVSA Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 6a (isolate 6a33) (HCV)

POLG_HCV6A Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 6a (isolate EUHK2) (HCV)

POLG_HCVEU Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 6b (isolate Th580) (HCV)

POLG_HCVT5 Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 6d (isolate VN235) (HCV)

POLG_HCVVN Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 6g (isolate JK046) (HCV)

POLG_HCVJL Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 6h (isolate VN004) (HCV)

POLG_HCVVP Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis C virus genotype 6k (isolate VN405) (HCV)

POLG_HCVVO Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein p21 (Capsid protein C) (p21); Core protein p19; ...

1 entry

Hepatitis GB virus B (GBV-B) (GB virus B)

POLG_GBVB Genome polyprotein [Cleaved into: Core protein; Envelope glycoprotein E1; Envelope glycoprotein E2 ...