Velarivirus

VIRION

Non-enveloped, filamentous particle about 1500-1700 nm in length. The virion body is assembled by the major capsid protein (CP) and the tail by the minor capsid protein (CPm).

GENOME

Linear ssRNA(+) genome of about 16-17 kb. The 3' terminus has no poly(A) tract and the 5' terminus probably has a methylated nucleotide cap. Encodes 10 proteins.

GENE EXPRESSION

The virion RNA is infectious and serves as both the genome and viral messenger RNA. ORF1a and ORF1ab protein (containing RdRp) are produced by ribosomal frameshifting. Other ORFs are translated from a set of nested 3' co-terminal subgenomic RNAs.

REPLICATION

CYTOPLASMIC

  1. Virus penetrates into the host cell.
  2. Uncoating, and release of the viral genomic RNA into the cytoplasm.
  3. The viral RNA is translated into a processed ORF1 polyprotein to yield the replication proteins.
  4. Replication occurs in viral factories. A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+).
  5. The dsRNA genome is transcribed/replicated thereby providing viral mRNAs/new ssRNA(+) genomes.
  6. Subgenomic RNA translation gives rise to the other viral proteins.
  7. Assembly of new virus particles.
  8. Viral movement proteins mediate virion cell-to-cell transfer.