Primate T-lymphotropic virus 1

VIRION

Enveloped. Spherical to pleomorphic, about 80-100 nm in diameter.

GENOME

Monopartite, linear, dimeric, ssRNA(+) genome of 8,5 kb, with a 5'-cap and a 3’poly-A tail. There are two long terminal repeats (LTRs) of about 600nt long at the 5' and 3' ends. The LTRs contain the U3, R, and U5 regions. There are also a primer binding site (PBS) at the 5’end and a polypurine tract (PPT) at the 3’end.

GENE EXPRESSION

The integrated provirus utilizes the promoter elements in the 5’LTR to drive transcription. This gives rise to the unspliced full length mRNA that will serve as genomic RNA to be packaged into virions or used as a template for translation of gag, gag-pro (1 ribosomal frameshift), and gag-pro-pol (2 ribosomal frameshifts) polyproteins. The singly spliced mRNA encodes env that is cleaved into SU and TM envelope proteins. Completely spliced mRNAs encode Rex and Tax. Rex escorts unspliced and singly spliced RNAs out of the nucleus of infected cells. Tax is a transcriptional activator that activates viral and cellular genes. Four accessory proteins p27I, p12I, p13II and p30II are also produced by alternative splicing of ORFs I and II.

REPLICATION

NUCLEAR

Lytic replication:

  1. Virus attaches to host receptors through the SU glycoprotein. TM glycoprotein mediates fusion with cell membrane.
  2. Internalization and uncoating.
  3. ssRNA(+) genome is copied into a linear dsDNA molecule by the reverse transcriptase.
  4. Nuclear entry of the viral dsDNA which is covalently and randomly integrated into the cell’s genome by the integrase (=provirus).
  5. Transcription of provirus by Pol II produces viral spliced and unspliced RNAs.
  6. Translation of fully spliced viral RNAs produces tax and rex proteins.
  7. Rex mediates nuclear export of the uncompletely spliced RNAs.
  8. Translation of unspliced viral RNAs produces Env, Gag, Gag-Pro and Gag-Pro-Pol polyproteins.
  9. Assembly of the virion at the host cellular membrane and packaging of the viral RNA genome.
  10. Budding through the plasma membrane and release of the virions.
  11. Proteolytic processing of the precursors polyproteins by viral protease and maturation of the virions.

Latent replication : replication as a provirus integrated in the host chromosome.

Geography

Global map HTLV-I virus infection source

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

31 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 18 complete proteome entries)

9 entries

Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain

Select_allDeselect_all
ENV_HTL1C Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 46) ...
GAG_HTL1C Gag polyprotein (Pr53Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
POL_HTL1C Gag-Pro-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pro-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein ...
PRO_HTL1C Gag-Pro polyprotein (Pr76Gag-Pro) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
TAX_HTL1C Protein Tax-1 (Protein X-LOR) (Protein PX) (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of ...
HBZ_HTL1C HTLV-1 basic zipper factor (HBZ)
P12I_HTL1C Accessory protein p12I
P30II_HTL1C Accessory protein p30II
REX_HTL1C Protein Rex (Rev homolog) (Rex-1) (p27Rex)

9 entries

Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan ATK-1 subtype A) (HTLV-1)

Select_allDeselect_all
ENV_HTL1A Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 46) ...
GAG_HTL1A Gag polyprotein (Pr53Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
POL_HTL1A Gag-Pro-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pro-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein ...
PRO_HTL1A Gag-Pro polyprotein (Pr76Gag-Pro) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
TAX_HTL1A Protein Tax-1 (Protein X-LOR) (Protein PX) (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of ...
HBZ_HTL1A HTLV-1 basic zipper factor (HBZ)
P30II_HTL1A Accessory protein p30II
P12I_HTL1A Accessory protein p12I
REX_HTL1A Protein Rex (Rev homolog) (Rex-1) (p27Rex)

7 entries

Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Melanesia mel5 subtype C) (HTLV-1)

Select_allDeselect_all
ENV_HTL1L Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 46) ...
GAG_HTL1L Gag polyprotein (Pr53Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
HBZ_HTL1L HTLV-1 basic zipper factor (HBZ)
POL_HTL1L Gag-Pro-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pro-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein ...
PRO_HTL1L Gag-Pro polyprotein (Pr76Gag-Pro) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
TAX_HTL1L Protein Tax-1 (Protein X-LOR) (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of HTLV-1)
REX_HTL1L Protein Rex (Rev homolog) (Rex-1) (p27Rex)

3 entries

Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Zaire EL subtype B) (HTLV-1)

Select_allDeselect_all
ENV_HTL1F Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 46) ...
TAX_HTL1F Protein Tax-1 (Protein X-LOR) (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of HTLV-1)
REX_HTL1F Protein Rex (Rev homolog) (Rex-1) (p27Rex)

2 entries

Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan MT-2 subtype A) (HTLV-1)

Select_allDeselect_all
ENV_HTL1M Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 46) ...
GAG_HTL1M Gag polyprotein (Pr53Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...

1 entry

Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea CH subtype A) (HTLV-1)

ENV_HTL1N Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 46) ...