Human immunodeficiency virus 2

VIRION

Enveloped, spherical to pleomorphic in shape, 80-100 nm in diameter.

GENOME

Monopartite, linear, dimeric, ssRNA(+) genome of about 9 kb, with a 5'-cap and a 3’poly-A tail. There are two long terminal repeats (LTRs) of about 600nt long at the 5' and 3' ends. The LTRs contain the U3, R, and U5 regions. There are also a primer binding site (PBS) at the 5’end and a polypurine tract (PPT) at the 3’end.

GENE EXPRESSION

The integrated provirus utilizes the promotor elements in the 5' LTR to drive transcription. This gives rise to the unspliced full length mRNA that will serve as genomic RNA to be packaged into virions or used as a template for translation of gag and gag-(pro)pol (1 ribosomal frameshift) polyproteins. The uncompletely spliced mRNAs encode env that is cleaved into SU and TM envelope proteins, and the accessory proteins vif, vpx, and vpr. Completely spliced mRNAs encode Rev, Tat and Nef accessory proteins. Rev escorts unspliced and uncompletely spliced RNAs out of the nucleus of infected cells.

REPLICATION

NUCLEAR

Lytic replication:

  1. Virus attaches to host CD4 receptors through the SU glycoprotein (gp120), with subsequent interaction with a chemokine coreceptor.
  2. TM glycoprotein (gp41) mediates fusion with ?the host cell membrane or ?the endosomal membrane like HIV-1?. Nucleocapsid is released into the cytoplasm, with partial uncoating.
  3. ssRNA(+) genome is copied into a linear dsDNA molecule by the reverse transcriptase.
  4. Nuclear entry of the viral dsDNA which is covalently and randomly integrated into the cell’s genome by the integrase (=provirus).
  5. Transcription of provirus by Pol II produces viral spliced and unspliced RNAs.
  6. Translation of spliced viral RNAs produces tat, rev, and nef proteins.
  7. Rev mediates nuclear export of the uncompletely spliced RNAs.
  8. Translation of unspliced viral RNAs produces Env, Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins.
  9. Assembly of the virion at the host cellular membrane and packaging of the viral RNA genome.
  10. Budding through the plasma membrane and release of the virions.
  11. Proteolytic processing of the precursors polyproteins by viral protease and maturation of the virions.

Latent replication : replication as a provirus integrated in the host chromosome.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

108 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 90 complete proteome entries)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate BEN) (HIV-2) reference strain

Select_allDeselect_all
ENV_HV2BE Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein gp120 (SU) ...
GAG_HV2BE Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); Spacer ...
NEF_HV2BE Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
POL_HV2BE Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
REV_HV2BE Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
VIF_HV2BE Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
TAT_HV2BE Protein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VPR_HV2BE Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2BE Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2CA Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein gp120 (SU) ...
GAG_HV2CA Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); Spacer ...
NEF_HV2CA Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
REV_HV2CA Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
POL_HV2CA Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
TAT_HV2CA Protein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VPR_HV2CA Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2CA Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)
VIF_HV2CA Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate D194) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2D1 Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein gp120 (SU) ...
GAG_HV2D1 Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); Spacer ...
NEF_HV2D1 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
REV_HV2D1 Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
POL_HV2D1 Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
TAT_HV2D1 Protein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VPR_HV2D1 Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2D1 Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)
VIF_HV2D1 Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate Ghana-1) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2G1 Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein gp120 (SU) ...
GAG_HV2G1 Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); Spacer ...
NEF_HV2G1 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
REV_HV2G1 Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
POL_HV2G1 Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
VPX_HV2G1 Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)
TAT_HV2G1 Protein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VPR_HV2G1 Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VIF_HV2G1 Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate KR) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2KR Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein gp120 (SU) ...
GAG_HV2KR Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); Spacer ...
NEF_HV2KR Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
REV_HV2KR Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
POL_HV2KR Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
VPR_HV2KR Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
TAT_HV2KR Protein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VIF_HV2KR Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPX_HV2KR Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate NIH-Z) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2NZ Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein gp120 (SU) ...
GAG_HV2NZ Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); Spacer ...
NEF_HV2NZ Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
REV_HV2NZ Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
POL_HV2NZ Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
TAT_HV2NZ Protein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VIF_HV2NZ Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPX_HV2NZ Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)
VPR_HV2NZ Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ROD) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2RO Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein gp120 (SU) ...
GAG_HV2RO Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); Spacer ...
NEF_HV2RO Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
REV_HV2RO Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
POL_HV2RO Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
VPR_HV2RO Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
TAT_HV2RO Protein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VPX_HV2RO Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)
VIF_HV2RO Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate SBLISY) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2SB Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein gp120 (SU) ...
GAG_HV2SB Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); Spacer ...
NEF_HV2SB Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
REV_HV2SB Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
POL_HV2SB Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
TAT_HV2SB Protein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VIF_HV2SB Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPR_HV2SB Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VPX_HV2SB Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ST) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2ST Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein gp120 (SU) ...
GAG_HV2ST Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); Spacer ...
NEF_HV2ST Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
REV_HV2ST Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
POL_HV2ST Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
VPX_HV2ST Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)
VPR_HV2ST Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
TAT_HV2ST Protein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VIF_HV2ST Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate EHO) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2EH Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein gp120 (SU) ...
GAG_HV2EH Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); Spacer ...
NEF_HV2EH Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
REV_HV2EH Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
POL_HV2EH Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
VIF_HV2EH Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPR_HV2EH Protein Vpr (Viral protein R)
TAT_HV2EH Protein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VPX_HV2EH Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)

9 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate UC1) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2UC Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein gp120 (SU) ...
GAG_HV2UC Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); Spacer ...
NEF_HV2UC Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
REV_HV2UC Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
POL_HV2UC Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
TAT_HV2UC Protein Tat (Transactivating regulatory protein)
VPX_HV2UC Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)
VPR_HV2UC Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)
VIF_HV2UC Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)

8 entries

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate D205) (HIV-2)

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ENV_HV2D2 Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein gp120 (SU) ...
GAG_HV2D2 Gag polyprotein (Pr55Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); Spacer ...
NEF_HV2D2 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)
REV_HV2D2 Protein Rev (Regulator of expression of viral proteins)
POL_HV2D2 Gag-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p17 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
VPX_HV2D2 Protein Vpx (Viral protein X) (X ORF protein)
VIF_HV2D2 Virion infectivity factor (Vif) (Q protein) (SOR protein)
VPR_HV2D2 Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ST/24.1C#2) (HIV-2)

ENV_HV2S2 Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein gp120 (SU) ...