Grapevine red-blotch associated virus

VIRION

Non-enveloped, twinned (geminate) incomplete T=1 icosahedral symmetry capsid that contains 22 pentameric capsomers made of 110 capsid proteins (CP). Each geminate particle contains only a single circular ssDNA.

GENOME

Monopartite, circular, ssDNA genome (+) genome of about 3.2 kb. 3' terminus has no poly(A) tract. There are coding regions in both the virion (positive) and complementary (negative) sense strands.
The genome is replicated through double-stranded intermediates. The replication (Rep) protein initiates and terminates rolling circle replication, the host DNA polymerase being used for DNA replication itself. There is a potential stem-loop structure in the intergenic region where ssDNA synthesis is initiated.

GENE EXPRESSION

Transcription is bidirectional from the intergenic region. 6 proteins are produced. On the v-sense: proteins CP, V2, and V3. On the C-sense: Rep, Rep-A and C3. Proteins are expressed from subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs).

REPLICATION

NUCLEAR

  1. Virus penetrates into the host cell.
  2. Uncoating, the viral ssDNA genome penetrates into the nucleus.
  3. The ssDNA is converted into dsDNA with the participation of cellular factors.
  4. bidirectional dsDNA transcription from the IR promoter produces viral mRNAs and translation of viral proteins.
  5. Replication is initiated by cleavage of the(+)strand by REP, and occurs by rolling circle producing ssDNA genomes.
  6. These newly synthesized ssDNA can either
    a) be converted to dsDNA and serve as a template for transcription/replication
    b) be encapsidated by CP and form virions released from the cell by budding
    c) be transported outside the nucleus, to a neighboring cell through plasmodesmata (cell-cell movement) with the help of viral movement proteins.