Inhibition of host chemokines by virus

Chemokines, or chemotactic cyto kines are secreted protein playing an important role in migration of immune cells to a site of viral infection, Th1/Th2 differentiation, and T cell co-stimulation.

Due to the importance of chemokines in immunity, viruses have evolved mechanisms to counter the chemokine network. The level of regulating chemokines can occur at different levels. Some viruses encode viral cytokines, such as cytomegalovirus UL146 (vCXCL1 that targets both CXCR1 and CXCR2 as an agonist), or Molluscum contagiosum virus MC148R that displaces the interaction between CXCL12alpha and CXCR4. These proteins interfere with proper chemokine signaling. Viruses also encode chemokine receptors. For example, HCMV encodes four proteins US27, US28, UL33 and UL78 homologous to human chemokine receptors. US28 receptor expression leads to constitutive activation of the host Galphaq/phospholipase C pathway. HHV-6 and HHV-7 possess also two proteins homologous to chemokine receptor namely U12 and U51 that can function in concert with CCR4 and CCR7 in host-cell signalling pathways. Finally, viruses also interfere with the host chemokines by encoding viral chemokine-binding proteins. For instance, Myxoma virus gamma interferon receptor homolog M-T7 interacts with the heparin-binding domains of chemokines. Glycoprotein G from pseudorabies also virus binds to chemokines with high affinity and inhibits their function.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

12 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 10 complete proteome entries)

3 entries

Protein A41

Select_allDeselect_all
A41_VACCC
Vaccinia virus (strain Copenhagen) (VACV) reference strain
A41_VACCW
Vaccinia virus (strain Western Reserve) (VACV) (Vaccinia virus (strain WR)) reference strain
A41_VAR67
Variola virus (isolate Human/India/Ind3/1967) (VARV) (Smallpox virus) reference strain

2 entries

Chemokine-binding protein (vCKBP) (35 kDa protein)

Select_allDeselect_all
C23L_VAR67
Variola virus (isolate Human/India/Ind3/1967) (VARV) (Smallpox virus) reference strain
C23L_VACCL
Vaccinia virus (strain Lister) (VACV)

1 entry

Cytokine response-modifying protein B (CrmB) (Viral tumor necrosis factor receptor II) (vTNFR)

CRMB_VAR67
Variola virus (isolate Human/India/Ind3/1967) (VARV) (Smallpox virus) reference strain

1 entry

Chemokine vCXCL1

CXCL1_HCMVM
Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

1 entry

Envelope glycoprotein G (gG)

GG_SUHVR
Suid herpesvirus 1 (strain Rice) (SuHV-1) (Pseudorabies virus (strain Rice))

2 entries

G-protein coupled receptor homolog UL33

Select_allDeselect_all
UL33_HCMVA
Human cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

G-protein coupled receptor homolog UL33 (vGPCR UL33)

UL33_HCMVM
Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

1 entry

G-protein coupled receptor homolog US27 (HHRF2)

US27_HCMVA
Human cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

1 entry

G-protein coupled receptor homolog US28 (HHRF3)

US28_HCMVA
Human cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain