Inhibition of host autophagy by virus

Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved mechanism for the sequestration and subsequent lysosomal degradation of discrete intracellular portions of eukaryotic cells, facilitating the removal of materials not degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, autophagy plays important roles in innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens.

Several viruses have develop ways to subvert the pathway for their own benefit in order to avoid the immune response or to increase their viral replication. Beclin-1(AF077301:9606) is an essential autophagy protein and constitutes the major target for manipulation of autophagy by viruses. For example, HHV-1 ICP34.5(P36313) binds to Beclin-1(AF077301:9606) and inhibits autophagosome formation. HIV and Influenza A virus use the same mechanism through Nef(P03406) and M2(P06821) respectively, that also interact with and inhibit host Beclin-1(AF077301:9606).

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

167 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 88 complete proteome entries)

5 entries

Neurovirulence factor ICP34.5 (Infected cell protein 34.5) (protein gamma(1)34.5)

Select_allDeselect_all
ICP34_HHV11
Human herpesvirus 1 (strain 17) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1) reference strain
ICP34_HHV2H
Human herpesvirus 2 (strain HG52) (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2) reference strain
ICP34_HHV1D
Human herpesvirus 1 (strain CVG-2) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1)
ICP34_HHV1F
Human herpesvirus 1 (strain F) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1)
ICP34_HHV1N
Human herpesvirus 1 (strain MGH-10) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1)

112 entries

Matrix protein 2 (Proton channel protein M2)

Select_allDeselect_all
M2_I34A1
Influenza A virus (strain A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 H1N1) reference strain
M2_I49A1
Influenza A virus (strain A/Duck/Germany/1949 H10N7) reference strain
M2_I68A4
Influenza A virus (strain A/Hong Kong/1/1968 H3N2) reference strain
M2_I77AF
Influenza A virus (strain A/Gull/Maryland/704/1977 H13N6) reference strain
M2_I96A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 H5N1 genotype Gs/Gd) reference strain
M2_I000F
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chicken/Weybridge H7N7) (Influenza A virus (strain A/FPV/Weybridge H7N7))
M2_I000X
Influenza A virus (strain A/X-31 H3N2)
M2_I00A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Duck/Hong Kong/2986.1/2000 H5N1 genotype C)
M2_I01A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Silky Chicken/Hong Kong/SF189/2001 H5N1 genotype A)
M2_I01A1
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chicken/Hong Kong/YU562/2001 H5N1 genotype B)
M2_I01A2
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chicken/Hong Kong/FY150/2001 H5N1 genotype D)
M2_I01A3
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chicken/Hong Kong/715.5/2001 H5N1 genotype E)
M2_I02A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chicken/Brescia/1902 H7N7)
M2_I02A2
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chicken/Hong Kong/31.2/2002 H5N1 genotype X1)
M2_I02A3
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chicken/Hong Kong/37.4/2002 H5N1 genotype X2)
M2_I02A4
Influenza A virus (strain A/Silky Chicken/Hong Kong/YU100/2002 H5N1 genotype X3)
M2_I02A5
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chicken/Hong Kong/96.1/2002 H5N1 genotype Y)
M2_I02A6
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chicken/Hong Kong/YU22/2002 H5N1 genotype Z)
M2_I03A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Hong Kong/212/2003 H5N1 genotype Z+)
M2_I03A1
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chicken/Shantou/4231/2003 H5N1 genotype V)
M2_I05A1
Influenza A virus (strain A/Goose/Guangxi/345/2005 H5N1 genotype G)
M2_I06A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Russia:St.Petersburg/8/2006 H1N1)
M2_I18A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Brevig Mission/1/1918 H1N1) (Influenza A virus (strain A/South Carolina/1/1918 H1N1))
M2_I30A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Swine/Iowa/15/1930 H1N1)
M2_I33A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Wilson-Smith/1933 H1N1) (Influenza A virus (strain A/WS/1933 H1N1))
M2_I34A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Fowl plague virus/Rostock/8/1934 H7N1)
M2_I35A3
Influenza A virus (strain A/USA:Phila/1935 H1N1)
M2_I36A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Henry/1936 H1N1)
M2_I37A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Swine/29/1937 H1N1)
M2_I40A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Hickox/1940 H1N1)
M2_I43A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/USA:Iowa/1943 H1N1)
M2_I45A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/USA:Huston/AA/1945 H1N1)
M2_I50A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Fort Warren/1/1950 H1N1)
M2_I51A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/USA:Albany/12/1951 H1N1)
M2_I54A1
Influenza A virus (strain A/Swine/May/1954 H1N1)
M2_I54A2
Influenza A virus (strain A/Malaysia:Malaya/302/1954 H1N1)
M2_I56A1
Influenza A virus (strain A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/1956 H4N6)
M2_I56A2
Influenza A virus (strain A/Duck/England/1/1956 H11N6)
M2_I56A3
Influenza A virus (strain A/Equine/Prague/1/1956 H7N7)
M2_I57A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Japan/305/1957 H2N2)
M2_I57A1
Influenza A virus (strain A/Leningrad/134/1957 H2N2)
M2_I57A2
Influenza A virus (strain A/Leningrad/134/17/1957 H2N2)
M2_I57A3
Influenza A virus (strain A/Leningrad/134/47/1957 H2N2)
M2_I57A5
Influenza A virus (strain A/Singapore/1/1957 H2N2)
M2_I59A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chicken/Scotland/1959 H5N1)
M2_I60A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Ann Arbor/6/1960 H2N2)
M2_I61A1
Influenza A virus (strain A/Swine/Wisconsin/1/1961 H1N1)
M2_I66A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 H5N9)
M2_I66A1
Influenza A virus (strain A/Turkey/Wisconsin/1/1966 H9N2)
M2_I67A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Tokyo/3/1967 H2N2)
M2_I67A2
Influenza A virus (strain A/Swine/Wisconsin/1/1967 H1N1)
M2_I68A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Aichi/2/1968 H3N2)
M2_I68A3
Influenza A virus (strain A/Turkey/Ontario/6118/1968 H8N4)
M2_I68A5
Influenza A virus (strain A/Korea/426/1968 H2N2)
M2_I68A6
Influenza A virus (strain A/Northern Territory/60/1968 H3N2) (Influenza A virus (strain NT60)) (Influenza A virus (strain A/NT/60/1968 H3N2))
M2_I69A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/England/878/1969 H3N2)
M2_I70A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Qu/7/1970 H3N2)
M2_I71A1
Influenza A virus (strain A/Memphis/1/1971 H3N2)
M2_I71A2
Influenza A virus (strain A/Turkey/Oregon/1971 H7N3)
M2_I72A2
Influenza A virus (strain A/Udorn/307/1972 H3N2)
M2_I72A3
Influenza A virus (strain A/Memphis/102/1972 H3N2)
M2_I72A4
Influenza A virus (strain A/Memphis/101/1972 H3N2)
M2_I72A5
Influenza A virus (strain A/Shearwater/Australia/1972 H6N5)
M2_I72A8
Influenza A virus (strain A/Udorn/1972 H3N2)
M2_I73A5
Influenza A virus (strain A/Port Chalmers/1/1973 H3N2)
M2_I75A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Beijing/39/1975 H3N2)
M2_I76A6
Influenza A virus (strain A/Memphis/110/1976 H3N2)
M2_I77A4
Influenza A virus (strain A/Swine/Colorado/1/1977 H3N2)
M2_I77A9
Influenza A virus (strain A/Equine/New Market/1/1977 H7N7)
M2_I77AA
Influenza A virus (strain A/Brazil/11/1978 H1N1)
M2_I77AB
Influenza A virus (strain A/USSR/90/1977 H1N1)
M2_I77AC
Influenza A virus (strain A/Swine/Tennessee/24/1977 H1N1)
M2_I77AG
Influenza A virus (strain A/Budgerigar/Hokkaido/1/1977 H4N6)
M2_I78A3
Influenza A virus (strain A/Mallard/New York/6750/1978 H2N2)
M2_I78A7
Influenza A virus (strain A/Memphis/2/1978 H3N2)
M2_I78A8
Influenza A virus (strain A/Memphis/18/1978 H3N2)
M2_I78AC
Influenza A virus (strain A/Turkey/Minnesota/501/1978 H6N8)
M2_I78AF
Influenza A virus (strain A/Gull/Maryland/1824/1978 H13N6)
M2_I79A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Bangkok/1/1979 H3N2)
M2_I79A6
Influenza A virus (strain A/Equine/New Market/1979 H3N8)
M2_I79A7
Influenza A virus (strain A/Grey teal/Australia/2/1979 H4N4)
M2_I79A8
Influenza A virus (strain A/Gull/Maryland/1815/1979 H13N6)
M2_I80A2
Influenza A virus (strain A/Seal/Massachusetts/1/1980 H7N7)
M2_I80A4
Influenza A virus (strain A/Memphis/4/1980 H3N2)
M2_I80A6
Influenza A virus (strain A/Duck/Hokkaido/8/1980 H3N8)
M2_I80A8
Influenza A virus (strain A/Turkey/Minnesota/833/1980 H4N2)
M2_I80AA
Influenza A virus (strain A/India/6263/1980 H1N1)
M2_I80AC
Influenza A virus (strain A/Gull/Massachusetts/26/1980 H13N6)
M2_I80AD
Influenza A virus (strain A/Gull/Minnesota/945/1980 H13N6)
M2_I81A2
Influenza A virus (strain A/Equine/Kentucky/1/1981)
M2_I81A4
Influenza A virus (strain A/Swine/Ontario/2/1981 H1N1)
M2_I82A7
Influenza A virus (strain A/Swine/Hong Kong/127/1982 H3N2)
M2_I82A9
Influenza A virus (strain A/Philippines/2/1982 H3N2)
M2_I83A1
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chile/1/1983 H1N1)
M2_I83A4
Influenza A virus (strain A/Turkey/Ireland/1378/1983 H5N8)
M2_I83A5
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/1/1983 H5N2)
M2_I83A6
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1983 H5N2)
M2_I83A8
Influenza A virus (strain A/Hong Kong/5/1983 H3N2)
M2_I85A3
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chicken/Victoria/1/1985 H7N7)
M2_I85A4
Influenza A virus (strain A/Swine/Netherlands/12/1985 H1N1)
M2_I86A2
Influenza A virus (strain A/Equine/Kentucky/2/1986 H3N8)
M2_I86A3
Influenza A virus (strain A/Equine/Tennessee/5/1986 H3N8)
M2_I88A3
Influenza A virus (strain A/Memphis/8/1988 H3N2)
M2_I88A5
Influenza A virus (strain A/Swine/Iowa/17672/1988 H1N1)
M2_I88A7
Influenza A virus (strain A/Wisconsin/3523/1988 H1N1)
M2_I89A2
Influenza A virus (strain A/Beijing/353/1989 H3N2)
M2_I89A7
Influenza A virus (strain A/Equine/Jillin/1/1989 H3N8)
M2_I91A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Equine/Alaska/1/1991 H3N8)
M2_I96A2
Influenza A virus (strain A/USA:Memphis/10/1996 H1N1)
M2_I96A3
Influenza A virus (strain A/China:Nanchang/11/1996 H1N1)
M2_I97A0
Influenza A virus (strain A/Chicken/Hong Kong/220/1997 H5N1 genotype Gs/Gd)
M2_I97A1
Influenza A virus (strain A/Hong Kong/156/1997 H5N1 genotype Gs/Gd)

45 entries

Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)

Select_allDeselect_all
NEF_HV190
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype H (isolate 90CF056) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1B1
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BH10) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1EL
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype D (isolate ELI) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1ET
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype C (isolate ETH2220) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1H2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB2) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1MA
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype A (isolate MAL) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1MN
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate MN) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1MV
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate MVP5180) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1VI
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F1 (isolate VI850) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1YF
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group N (isolate YBF30) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_SIVEK
Simian immunodeficiency virus (isolate EK505) (SIV-cpz) (Chimpanzee immunodeficiency virus) reference strain
NEF_SIVMB
Simian immunodeficiency virus (isolate MB66) (SIV-cpz) (Chimpanzee immunodeficiency virus) reference strain
NEF_HV112
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate PCV12) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV192
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype C (isolate 92BR025) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV193
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F1 (isolate 93BR020) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV196
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype K (isolate 96CM-MP535) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV197
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype K (isolate 97ZR-EQTB11) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV19N
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype G (isolate 92NG083) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1A2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate ARV2/SF2) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1AN
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate ANT70) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1B8
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BH8) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1B9
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (strain 89.6) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1BN
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BRVA) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1BR
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BRU/LAI) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1H3
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB3) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1JR
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate JRCSF) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1LW
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate LW123) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1M2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F2 (isolate MP257) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1MP
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F2 (isolate MP255) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1ND
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype D (isolate NDK) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1OY
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate OYI) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1RH
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate RF/HAT3) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1S1
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate SF162) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1S2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype J (isolate SE9280) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1S3
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate SF33) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1S9
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype J (isolate SE9173) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1SC
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate SC) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1SE
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype G (isolate SE6165) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1U4
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype A (isolate U455) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1V9
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype H (isolate VI991) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1Y2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate YU-2) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1YB
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group N (isolate YBF106) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1Z6
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype D (isolate Z6) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1ZH
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype A (isolate Z321) (HIV-1)
NEF_SIVCZ
Simian immunodeficiency virus (isolate CPZ GAB1) (SIV-cpz) (Chimpanzee immunodeficiency virus)

3 entries

RNA-binding protein (Vmw21)

Select_allDeselect_all
RNB_HHV11
Human herpesvirus 1 (strain 17) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1) reference strain
RNB_HHV2H
Human herpesvirus 2 (strain HG52) (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2) reference strain

Probable RNA-binding protein

RNB_HHV1M
Human herpesvirus 1 (strain MP) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1)

2 entries

Protein HHLF1

Select_allDeselect_all
TRS1_HCMVA
Human cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain
TRS1_HCMVM
Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

Protein TRS1