Host G2/M cell cycle arrest by virus

The G2/M checkpoint of the cell cycle prevents the cell from entering mitosis to repair the the damaged genome and participates on various pro-survival signaling pathways. During the G2 phase the CDK1 kinase is maintained in an inactive (phosphorylated at Tyr-15) state by Wee1-like protein kinase. As cells approach M phase, the phosphatase Cdc25 dephosphorylates and thus activates CDK1, step that promotes cell entry into mitosis. The complex cyclinB-CDK1 migrates to the nucleus where it activates several substates to allow cells enter mitosis.

wee1 wee2 N Ul24 agno cdk1 cdk1 cdk1 cycB cycB cycB p53 p21 sigma cdc25 E1E4 NS1 cdk1 VPR dcaf1 ddb1 cycB Image Map

A number of different viruses have been associated with G2/M arrest, including DNA viruses, RNA viruses and retroviruses. The arrest in G2/M allows viruses to replicate their genome before cells enter mitosis. Alternatively, it can inhibit the antiviral immune response by preventing the clonal expansion of infected lymphocytes. Some viral proteins including JCV agnoprotein or MMV NS1 increase the cyclin inhibitor p21 activity through interaction with p53 to inhibit the cyclinB-CDK1. The nucleoprotein from Bornavirus or the UL24 protein from herpesviridae directly inhibit the cyclinB-CDK1 complex, while E4 from HPV16 prevents its nuclear localization. Instead, the serotype 3 reovirus sigma1-s protein hyperphosphorylates cyclinB-CDK1 that becomes inactive.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

151 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 128 complete proteome entries)

2 entries

Nucleoprotein (N protein) (Nucleocapsid protein) (p38) (p40)

Select_allDeselect_all
NCAP_BDVV
Borna disease virus (strain V) (BDV) reference strain
NCAP_BDV1
Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1)

2 entries

Non-structural protein 1

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NS1_MUMIP
Murine minute virus (strain MVM prototype) (MVM) (Murine minute virus (strain MVM(p))) reference strain

Non-structural protein NS1

NS1_PAVHV
Human parvovirus B19 (strain HV) (HPV B19) reference strain

1 entry

Protein Rep68 (EC 3.6.4.12)

REP68_AAV2S
Adeno-associated virus 2 (isolate Srivastava/1982) (AAV-2) reference strain

1 entry

Protein Rep78

REP78_AAV2S
Adeno-associated virus 2 (isolate Srivastava/1982) (AAV-2) reference strain

3 entries

Protein sigma-1-small (Sigma1s) (Sigma-s) (Sigma1NS) (Sigma1bNS) (p14)

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SIG1S_REOVL
Reovirus type 1 (strain Lang) (T1L) (Mammalian orthoreovirus 1) reference strain
SIG1S_REOVD
Reovirus type 3 (strain Dearing) (T3D) (Mammalian orthoreovirus 3)
SIG1S_REOVJ
Reovirus type 2 (strain D5/Jones) (T2J) (Mammalian orthoreovirus 2)

4 entries

Protein UL24 homolog

Select_allDeselect_all
UL24_GAHVM
Gallid herpesvirus 2 (strain Chicken/Md5/ATCC VR-987) (GaHV-2) (Marek's disease herpesvirus type 1) reference strain
UL24_HHV8P
Human herpesvirus 8 type P (isolate GK18) (HHV-8) (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) reference strain
UL24_PSHV1
Psittacid herpesvirus 1 (isolate Amazon parrot/-/97-0001/1997) (PsHV-1) (Pacheco's disease virus) reference strain

Protein UL24

UL24_EHV1
Equine herpesvirus 1 (strain HVS25A) (EHV-1) (Equine abortion virus)

2 entries

Protein UL76

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UL76_HCMVA
Human cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain
UL76_HCMVM
Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

29 entries

Protein E4

Select_allDeselect_all
VE4_BPV1
Bovine papillomavirus type 1 reference strain
VE4_HPV04
Human papillomavirus type 4 reference strain
VE4_HPV05
Human papillomavirus type 5 reference strain
VE4_HPV1
Human papillomavirus type 1 (Human papillomavirus type 1a) reference strain
VE4_HPV11
Human papillomavirus type 11 reference strain
VE4_HPV16
Human papillomavirus type 16 reference strain

Protein E4 (E1^E4)

VE4_HPV18
Human papillomavirus type 18 reference strain
VE4_HPV29
Human papillomavirus type 29 reference strain
VE4_HPV2A
Human papillomavirus type 2a reference strain
VE4_HPV31
Human papillomavirus type 31 reference strain
VE4_HPV33
Human papillomavirus type 33 reference strain

Protein E4 (E1^E4)

VE4_HPV41
Human papillomavirus type 41 reference strain
VE4_HPV42
Human papillomavirus type 42 reference strain
VE4_HPV51
Human papillomavirus type 51 reference strain
VE4_HPV54
Human papillomavirus type 54 reference strain
VE4_HPV58
Human papillomavirus type 58 reference strain
VE4_HPV63
Human papillomavirus type 63 reference strain
VE4_BPV2
Bovine papillomavirus type 2

Probable protein E4

VE4_HPV08
Human papillomavirus type 8
VE4_HPV13
Human papillomavirus type 13
VE4_HPV28
Human papillomavirus type 28
VE4_HPV35
Human papillomavirus type 35
VE4_HPV39
Human papillomavirus type 39
VE4_HPV47
Human papillomavirus type 47
VE4_HPV57
Human papillomavirus type 57
VE4_HPV5B
Human papillomavirus type 5b
VE4_HPV65
Human papillomavirus type 65
VE4_HPV6A
Human papillomavirus type 6a
VE4_HPV6B
Human papillomavirus type 6b

Protein E4 (E1^E4)

52 entries

Protein Vpr (R ORF protein) (Viral protein R)

Select_allDeselect_all
VPR_HV190
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype H (isolate 90CF056) (HIV-1) reference strain
VPR_HV1B1
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BH10) (HIV-1) reference strain
VPR_HV1EL
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype D (isolate ELI) (HIV-1) reference strain
VPR_HV1ET
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype C (isolate ETH2220) (HIV-1) reference strain
VPR_HV1H2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB2) (HIV-1) reference strain
VPR_HV1MA
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype A (isolate MAL) (HIV-1) reference strain
VPR_HV1MN
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate MN) (HIV-1) reference strain
VPR_HV1MV
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate MVP5180) (HIV-1) reference strain
VPR_HV1VI
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F1 (isolate VI850) (HIV-1) reference strain
VPR_HV1YF
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group N (isolate YBF30) (HIV-1) reference strain
VPR_HV2BE
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate BEN) (HIV-2) reference strain
VPR_HV2ST
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ST) (HIV-2) reference strain
VPR_SIVEK
Simian immunodeficiency virus (isolate EK505) (SIV-cpz) (Chimpanzee immunodeficiency virus) reference strain
VPR_SIVMB
Simian immunodeficiency virus (isolate MB66) (SIV-cpz) (Chimpanzee immunodeficiency virus) reference strain
VPR_HV112
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate PCV12) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV192
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype C (isolate 92BR025) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV193
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F1 (isolate 93BR020) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV196
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype K (isolate 96CM-MP535) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV197
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype K (isolate 97ZR-EQTB11) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV19N
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype G (isolate 92NG083) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1A2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate ARV2/SF2) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1AN
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate ANT70) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1B5
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BH5) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1B9
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (strain 89.6) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1BR
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BRU/LAI) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1H3
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB3) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1JR
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate JRCSF) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1M2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F2 (isolate MP257) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1MP
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F2 (isolate MP255) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1N5
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate NY5) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1OY
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate OYI) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1RH
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate RF/HAT3) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1S2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype J (isolate SE9280) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1S3
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate SF33) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1S9
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype J (isolate SE9173) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1SC
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate SC) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1SE
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype G (isolate SE6165) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1V9
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype H (isolate VI991) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1Y2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate YU-2) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1YB
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group N (isolate YBF106) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV1Z2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype D (isolate Z2/CDC-Z34) (HIV-1)
VPR_HV2CA
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate CAM2) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2D1
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate D194) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2D2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate D205) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2EH
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate EHO) (HIV-2)

Protein Vpr (Viral protein R)

VPR_HV2G1
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate Ghana-1) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2KR
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate KR) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2NZ
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate NIH-Z) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2RO
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate ROD) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2SB
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate SBLISY) (HIV-2)
VPR_HV2UC
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype B (isolate UC1) (HIV-2)
VPR_SIVCZ
Simian immunodeficiency virus (isolate CPZ GAB1) (SIV-cpz) (Chimpanzee immunodeficiency virus)

55 entries

Protein X (HBx) (Peptide X) (pX)

Select_allDeselect_all
X_GSHV
Ground squirrel hepatitis virus (strain 27) (GSHV) reference strain
X_HBVCJ
Hepatitis B virus genotype C subtype ayr (isolate Human/Japan/Okamoto/-) (HBV-C) reference strain
X_HBVD3
Hepatitis B virus genotype D subtype ayw (isolate France/Tiollais/1979) (HBV-D) reference strain
X_ASHV
Arctic squirrel hepatitis virus (ASHV)
X_HBVA2
Hepatitis B virus genotype A2 subtype adw (isolate Japan/Nishioka/1983) (HBV-A)
X_HBVA3
Hepatitis B virus genotype A2 subtype adw2 (strain Rutter 1979) (HBV-A)
X_HBVA4
Hepatitis B virus genotype A2 subtype adw2 (isolate Germany/991/1990) (HBV-A)
X_HBVA6
Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 subtype adw2 (isolate South Africa/84/2001) (HBV-A)
X_HBVA7
Hepatitis B virus genotype A2 (isolate Japan/11D11HCCW/1998) (HBV-A)
X_HBVA8
Hepatitis B virus genotype A3 (isolate Cameroon/CMR983/1994) (HBV-A)
X_HBVA9
Hepatitis B virus genotype A3 (isolate Cameroon/CMR711/1994) (HBV-A)
X_HBVB1
Hepatitis B virus genotype B1 subtype adw (isolate Japan/pJDW233/1988) (HBV-B)
X_HBVB2
Hepatitis B virus genotype B2 (isolate Indonesia/pIDW420/1988) (HBV-B)
X_HBVB3
Hepatitis B virus genotype B2 (isolate Vietnam/9873/1997) (HBV-B)
X_HBVB4
Hepatitis B virus genotype B/C subtype adw (isolate Okinawa/pODW282/1998) (HBV-B)
X_HBVB5
Hepatitis B virus genotype B2 (isolate Vietnam/16091/1992) (HBV-B)
X_HBVB6
Hepatitis B virus genotype B2 subtype adw (isolate China/patient4/1996) (HBV-B)
X_HBVB7
Hepatitis B virus genotype B1 (isolate Japan/Yamagata-2/1998) (HBV-B)
X_HBVB8
Hepatitis B virus genotype B1 (isolate Japan/Ry30/2002) (HBV-B)
X_HBVC0
Hepatitis B virus genotype C (isolate Vietnam/3270/2000) (HBV-C)
X_HBVC1
Hepatitis B virus genotype C subtype adr (isolate Japan/Nishioka/1983) (HBV-C)
X_HBVC2
Hepatitis B virus genotype C subtype ar (isolate Japan/S-207/1988) (HBV-C)
X_HBVC3
Hepatitis B virus genotype C subtype adr (strain Japan/adr4/1983) (HBV-C)
X_HBVC5
Hepatitis B virus genotype C subtype ad (isolate Japan/S-179/1988) (HBV-C)
X_HBVC7
Hepatitis B virus genotype C subtype ayw (isolate China/Tibet127/2002) (HBV-C)
X_HBVC8
Hepatitis B virus genotype C subtype adr (isolate Japan/A4/1994) (HBV-C)
X_HBVC9
Hepatitis B virus genotype C subtype ayw (isolate Australia/AustRC/1992) (HBV-C)
X_HBVCP
Chimpanzee hepatitis B virus (isolate United Kingdom/LSH/1988) (HBVcpz)
X_HBVD2
Hepatitis B virus genotype D (isolate France/alpha1/1989) (HBV-D)
X_HBVD4
Hepatitis B virus genotype D subtype ayw (isolate Japan/JYW796/1988) (HBV-D)
X_HBVD5
Hepatitis B virus genotype D subtype ayw (isolate Australia/AustKW/1991) (HBV-D)
X_HBVD6
Hepatitis B virus genotype D subtype ayw (isolate Italy/CI/1992) (HBV-D)
X_HBVD7
Hepatitis B virus genotype D (isolate Germany/1-91/1991) (HBV-D)
X_HBVE1
Hepatitis B virus genotype E subtype ayw4 (isolate Kou) (HBV-E)
X_HBVE2
Hepatitis B virus genotype E (isolate Cote d'Ivoire/ABI-129/2003) (HBV-E)
X_HBVE3
Hepatitis B virus genotype E (isolate Chimpanzee/Ch195/1999) (HBV-E)
X_HBVE4
Hepatitis B virus genotype E (isolate Cote d'Ivoire/ABI-212/2003) (HBV-E)
X_HBVF1
Hepatitis B virus genotype F2 (isolate Brazil/w4B) (HBV-F)
X_HBVF2
Hepatitis B virus genotype F1 subtype adw4 (isolate El Salvador/1116Sal/1997) (HBV-F)
X_HBVF4
Hepatitis B virus genotype F2 (isolate Argentina/sa16/2000) (HBV-F)
X_HBVF6
Hepatitis B virus genotype F2 subtype adw4q (isolate Senegal/9203) (HBV-F)
X_HBVG3
Hepatitis B virus genotype G (isolate IG29227/2000) (HBV-G)
X_HBVGB
Gibbon hepatitis B virus subtype ayw3q (isolate Hope) (HBVgbn)
X_HBVGO
Gorilla hepatitis B virus (isolate Cameroon/gor97) (HBVgor)
X_HBVH1
Hepatitis B virus genotype H (isolate United States/LAS2523/2002) (HBV-H)
X_HBVH2
Hepatitis B virus genotype H subtype adw4 (isolate Nicaragua/1853Nic/1997) (HBV-H)
X_HBVH3
Hepatitis B virus genotype H subtype adw4 (isolate Nicaragua/2928Nic/1997) (HBV-H)
X_HBVOR
Orangutan hepatitis B virus (isolate Somad) (HBVoru)
X_WHV1
Woodchuck hepatitis B virus (isolate 1) (WHV)
X_WHV2
Woodchuck hepatitis B virus (isolate 2) (WHV)
X_WHV3
Woodchuck hepatitis B virus (isolate 59) (WHV)
X_WHV4
Woodchuck hepatitis B virus (isolate 7) (WHV)
X_WHV5
Woodchuck hepatitis B virus (isolate 8) (WHV)
X_WHV6
Woodchuck hepatitis B virus (isolate w64/pWS23) (WHV)
X_WMHBV
Woolly monkey hepatitis B virus (isolate Louisville) (WMHBV)