Inhibition of host adaptive immune response by virus

Unlike innate immune response, which remain essentially unchanged upon exposure to a recurrent challenge with the same stimulus, adaptive immune cells possess the ability to learn and remember. Adaptive immunity relies on the capacity of immune cells to distinguish between the body’s own cells and unwanted invaders. Healthy cells present peptides from normal cellular proteins on their cell surface, and lymphocytes will not be activated in response to them. When a cell is infected by viruses or other pathogens, the foreign peptides generated are recognized by lymphocytes that are activated and destroy the infected cell.

TAT EBNA1 K3 K5 us11 us2 mK3 m06 nef U21 ORF66 ICP47 BLN2fa US6 us3 e3-k19

Viruses employ different strategies to inhibit presentation of viral-derived peptides. One way consists of the modulation of proteasome activity which generate the peptides from full-length proteins. Some viruses also directly interact with and inhibit the machinery responsible for the generation and transport of loaded MHC molecules. For instance, TAP and tapasin are common targets of viral proteins.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

84 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 51 complete proteome entries)

1 entry

Protein 169

169_VACCW
Vaccinia virus (strain Western Reserve) (VACV) (Vaccinia virus (strain WR)) reference strain

2 entries

Protein A35

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A35_VACCC
Vaccinia virus (strain Copenhagen) (VACV) reference strain
A35_VACCW
Vaccinia virus (strain Western Reserve) (VACV) (Vaccinia virus (strain WR)) reference strain

1 entry

G-protein coupled receptor BILF1

BILF1_EBVB9
Epstein-Barr virus (strain B95-8) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain

3 entries

Protein BNLF2a

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BNL2A_EBVA8
Epstein-Barr virus (strain AG876) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain
BNL2A_EBVB9
Epstein-Barr virus (strain B95-8) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain
BNL2A_EBVG
Epstein-Barr virus (strain GD1) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4)

7 entries

Early E3 18.5 kDa glycoprotein (E3-19K) (E3gp 19 kDa) (E19) (GP19K)

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E3GL_ADE02
Human adenovirus C serotype 2 (HAdV-2) (Human adenovirus 2) reference strain
E3GL_ADE05
Human adenovirus C serotype 5 (HAdV-5) (Human adenovirus 5) reference strain
E3GL_ADE03
Human adenovirus B serotype 3 (HAdV-3) (Human adenovirus 3)

Early E3 18.5 kDa glycoprotein (E3-19K) (E3gp 19 kDa) (E19) (Early E3 19.2 kDa glycoprotein) (GP19K)

E3GL_ADE06
Human adenovirus C serotype 6 (HAdV-6) (Human adenovirus 6)
E3GL_ADE1A
Human adenovirus B serotype 11 (strain BC34) (HAdV-11) (Human adenovirus 11A (strain BC34))
E3GL_ADE1P
Human adenovirus B serotype 11 (strain Slobiski) (HAdV-11) (Human adenovirus 11P (strain Slobiski))
E3GL_ADE35
Human adenovirus B serotype 35 (HAdV-35) (Human adenovirus 35)

3 entries

Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) (EBV nuclear antigen 1)

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EBNA1_EBVA8
Epstein-Barr virus (strain AG876) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain
EBNA1_EBVB9
Epstein-Barr virus (strain B95-8) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain
EBNA1_EBVG
Epstein-Barr virus (strain GD1) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4)

3 entries

Envelope glycoprotein (Env polyprotein)

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ENV_MLVF5
Friend murine leukemia virus (isolate 57) (FrMLV)
ENV_MLVFF
Friend murine leukemia virus (isolate FB29) (FrMLV)
ENV_MLVFP
Friend murine leukemia virus (isolate PVC-211) (FrMLV)

5 entries

ICP47 protein (Immediate-early protein IE12) (Immediate-early-5) (Infected cell protein 47) (US12 protein) (Vmw12)

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ICP47_HHV11
Human herpesvirus 1 (strain 17) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1) reference strain
ICP47_HHV2H
Human herpesvirus 2 (strain HG52) (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2) reference strain
ICP47_CHV16
Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16 (CeHV-16) (Herpesvirus papio 2)
ICP47_CHV1E
Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (strain E2490) (CeHV-1) (Simian herpes B virus)
ICP47_HSV2S
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (strain SA8) (Simian agent 8)

6 entries

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase LAP (EC 2.3.2.27) (Leukemia associated protein) (LAP) (RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase LAP)

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LAP_MYXVL
Myxoma virus (strain Lausanne) (MYXV) reference strain
LAP_RFVKA
Rabbit fibroma virus (strain Kasza) (RFV) (Shope fibroma virus (strain Kasza)) reference strain
LAP_YMTV5
Yaba monkey tumor virus (strain VR587) (YMTV) reference strain

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase LAP (EC 2.3.2.27) (Leukemia associated protein) (LAP) (RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase)

LAP_LSDV
Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV)
LAP_SWPVK
Swinepox virus (strain Kasza) (SWPV)
LAP_YLDV
Yaba-like disease virus (YLDV)

1 entry

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MIR1 (EC 2.3.2.27) (MK3) (Modulator of immune recognition 1 homolog) (ORF K3) (RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase MIR1)

MIR1_MHV68
Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) (Murine gammaherpesvirus 68) reference strain

42 entries

Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)

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NEF_HV1B1
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BH10) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1H2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB2) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1MA
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype A (isolate MAL) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1MN
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate MN) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1VI
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F1 (isolate VI850) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV112
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate PCV12) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV190
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype H (isolate 90CF056) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV192
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype C (isolate 92BR025) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV193
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F1 (isolate 93BR020) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV196
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype K (isolate 96CM-MP535) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV197
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype K (isolate 97ZR-EQTB11) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV19N
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype G (isolate 92NG083) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1A2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate ARV2/SF2) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1AN
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate ANT70) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1B8
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BH8) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1B9
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (strain 89.6) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1BN
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BRVA) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1BR
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BRU/LAI) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1EL
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype D (isolate ELI) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1ET
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype C (isolate ETH2220) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1H3
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB3) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1JR
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate JRCSF) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1LW
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate LW123) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1M2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F2 (isolate MP257) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1MP
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F2 (isolate MP255) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1MV
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate MVP5180) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1ND
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype D (isolate NDK) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1OY
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate OYI) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1RH
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate RF/HAT3) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1S1
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate SF162) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1S2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype J (isolate SE9280) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1S3
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate SF33) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1S9
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype J (isolate SE9173) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1SC
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate SC) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1SE
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype G (isolate SE6165) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1U4
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype A (isolate U455) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1V9
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype H (isolate VI991) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1Y2
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate YU-2) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1YB
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group N (isolate YBF106) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1YF
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group N (isolate YBF30) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1Z6
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype D (isolate Z6) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1ZH
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype A (isolate Z321) (HIV-1)

2 entries

Accessory protein p12I

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P12I_HTL1C
Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain
P12I_HTL1A
Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan ATK-1 subtype A) (HTLV-1)

1 entry

Serine/threonine-protein kinase US3 homolog (Protein kinase ORF66) (EC 2.7.11.1)

US03_VZVD
Varicella-zoster virus (strain Dumas) (HHV-3) (Human herpesvirus 3) reference strain

3 entries

Unique short US6 glycoprotein

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US06_HCMVA
Human cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

Unique short US6 glycoprotein (Protein HXLF6) (gpUS6)

US06_HCMVM
Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain
US06_HCMVT
Human cytomegalovirus (strain Towne) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5)

Unique short US6 glycoprotein (HXLF6) (gpUS6)

2 entries

Membrane glycoprotein US11

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US11_HCMVA
Human cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

Unique short US11 glycoprotein (Protein HXLF1) (gpUS11)

US11_HCMVM
Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

1 entry

Probable protein E5

VE5_HPV16
Human papillomavirus type 16 reference strain

1 entry

Viral IRF3-like protein (VIRF-3)

VIRF3_HHV8P
Human herpesvirus 8 type P (isolate GK18) (HHV-8) (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) reference strain