Inhibition of host caspases by virus

Apoptosis (or programmed cell death) is a controlled process leading to cell death characterized by chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, cell shrinkage, and compartmentalization of the dead cells to apoptotic bodies. The host immune system uses apoptosis to eliminate cells infected by pathogens. Apoptosis of infected cells is caused either by cytolytic cells activated during the anti-viral response, or directly by viral infection. Host caspases, constitute an evolutionary conserved family of aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that are at the heart of the apoptotic machinery.

E8 UL36 spi2 F1L
Playing a central role in cell death, caspases are targeted by different viruses in the aim of prolonging cell survival. For instance, viral IAPs (inhibitors of apoptosis) interact with and inhibit the processed active caspases, either by blocking the catalytic part of the enzymes, or through E3 ubiquitin ligase activity from RING domains, targeting caspases for rapid degradation via proteasome. Baculoviruses, asfiviruses or irridescent viruses encode such IAPs. Another class of caspase inhibitors frequently found among poxviruses include the serine proteinase inhibitors serpins: CrmA/SPI-2. Crma targets cysteine proteases such as host Caspase 1 and Caspase 8.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

22 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 15 complete proteome entries)

6 entries

Early E3 14.5 kDa protein

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E3145_ADE02
Human adenovirus C serotype 2 (HAdV-2) (Human adenovirus 2) reference strain

Early 3 14.7 kDa protein (E3-14.7k)

E3145_ADE05
Human adenovirus C serotype 5 (HAdV-5) (Human adenovirus 5) reference strain
E3145_ADEB3
Bovine adenovirus B serotype 3 (BAdV-3) (Mastadenovirus bos3) reference strain
E3145_ADE03
Human adenovirus B serotype 3 (HAdV-3) (Human adenovirus 3)

Early E3 15.3 kDa protein

E3145_ADE06
Human adenovirus C serotype 6 (HAdV-6) (Human adenovirus 6)

Early E3B 14 kDa protein

E3145_ADE07
Human adenovirus B serotype 7 (HAdV-7) (Human adenovirus 7)

Early E3 15.3 kDa protein

5 entries

Inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)

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IAP_ASFB7
African swine fever virus (strain Badajoz 1971 Vero-adapted) (Ba71V) (ASFV) reference strain
IAP_ASFK5
African swine fever virus (isolate Pig/Kenya/KEN-50/1950) (ASFV)
IAP_ASFM2
African swine fever virus (isolate Tick/Malawi/Lil 20-1/1983) (ASFV)
IAP_ASFP4
African swine fever virus (isolate Tick/South Africa/Pretoriuskop Pr4/1996) (ASFV)
IAP_ASFWA
African swine fever virus (isolate Warthog/Namibia/Wart80/1980) (ASFV)

1 entry

Early 35 kDa protein (Apoptosis-preventing protein) (p35)

P35_NPVAC
Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV)

6 entries

Serine proteinase inhibitor 2 (Serp-2) (Serpin-2)

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SPI2_MYXVL
Myxoma virus (strain Lausanne) (MYXV) reference strain
SPI2_VACCW
Vaccinia virus (strain Western Reserve) (VACV) (Vaccinia virus (strain WR)) reference strain
SPI2_VAR67
Variola virus (isolate Human/India/Ind3/1967) (VARV) (Smallpox virus) reference strain
SPI2_CWPXB
Cowpox virus (strain Brighton Red) (CPV)

Serine proteinase inhibitor 2 (Serp-2) (Serpin-2) (Cytokine response modifier protein A) (Hemorrhage-inducing 38 kDa protein) (ICE inhibitor)

SPI2_MYXVU
Myxoma virus (strain Uriarra) (MYXV)
SPI2_RABPU
Rabbitpox virus (strain Utrecht) (RPV)

2 entries

Apoptosis inhibitor 193R

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VF193_IIV3
Invertebrate iridescent virus 3 (IIV-3) (Mosquito iridescent virus) reference strain

Putative apoptosis inhibitor 021L

VF193_IIV6
Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6) (Chilo iridescent virus) reference strain

1 entry

Viral inhibitor of caspase-8-induced apoptosis (vICA)

VICA_HCMVM
Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

1 entry

Early 35 kDa protein (Apoptosis-preventing protein) (p35)

VP35_NPVBM
Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV)