Deltaretrovirus

VIRION

Enveloped. Spherical to pleomorphic, about 80-100 nm in diameter.

GENOME

Monopartite, linear, dimeric, ssRNA(+) genome of 8.4-9 kb, with a 5'-cap and a 3’poly-A tail. There are two long terminal repeats (LTRs) of about 550-750 nt long at the 5' and 3' ends. The LTRs contain the U3, R, and U5 regions. There are also a primer binding site (PBS) at the 5’end and a polypurine tract (PPT) at the 3’end.

GENE EXPRESSION

The integrated provirus utilizes the promoter elements in the 5’LTR to drive transcription. This gives rise to the unspliced full length mRNA that will serve as genomic RNA to be packaged into virions or used as a template for translation of gag, gag-pro (1 ribosomal frameshift), and gag-pro-pol (2 ribosomal frameshifts) polyproteins. The singly spliced mRNA encodes env that is cleaved into SU and TM envelope proteins. Completely spliced mRNAs encode Rex and Tax. Rex escorts unspliced and singly spliced RNAs out of the nucleus of infected cells. Tax is a transcriptional activator that activates viral and cellular genes.

REPLICATION

NUCLEAR

Lytic replication:

  1. Virus attaches to host receptors through the SU glycoprotein. TM glycoprotein mediates fusion with cell membrane.
  2. Internalization and uncoating.
  3. ssRNA(+) genome is copied into a linear dsDNA molecule by the reverse transcriptase.
  4. Nuclear entry of the viral dsDNA when the nuclear membrane is disassembled at mitosis.
  5. Viral dsDNA is covalently and randomly integrated into the cell’s genome by the viral integrase (=provirus).
  6. Transcription of provirus by Pol II produces viral spliced and unspliced RNAs.
  7. Translation of fully spliced viral RNAs produces tax and rex proteins.
  8. Rex mediates nuclear export of the incompletely spliced RNAs.
  9. Translation of unspliced viral RNAs produces Env, Gag, Gag-Pro and Gag-Pro-Pol polyproteins.
  10. Assembly of the virion at the host cellular membrane and packaging of the viral RNA genome.
  11. Budding through the plasma membrane and release of the virions.
  12. Proteolytic processing of the precursors polyproteins by viral protease and maturation of the virions.

Latent replication : replication as a provirus integrated in the host chromosome.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

61 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 36 complete proteome entries)

9 entries

Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain

Select_allDeselect_all
HBZ_HTL1C HTLV-1 basic zipper factor (HBZ)
ENV_HTL1C Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 46) ...
GAG_HTL1C Gag polyprotein (Pr53Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
P12I_HTL1C Accessory protein p12I
P30II_HTL1C Accessory protein p30II
REX_HTL1C Protein Rex (Rev homolog) (Rex-1) (p27Rex)
POL_HTL1C Gag-Pro-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pro-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein ...
PRO_HTL1C Gag-Pro polyprotein (Pr76Gag-Pro) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
TAX_HTL1C Protein Tax-1 (Protein X-LOR) (Protein PX) (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of ...

6 entries

Human T-cell leukemia virus 2 (HTLV-2) reference strain

Select_allDeselect_all
ENV_HTLV2 Envelope glycoprotein gp63 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 46) ...
GAG_HTLV2 Gag polyprotein (Pr53Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
REX_HTLV2 Protein Rex (Rev homolog) (Rex-2)
POL_HTLV2 Gag-Pro-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pro-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein ...
PRO_HTLV2 Gag-Pro polyprotein (Pr76Gag-Pro) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
TAX_HTLV2 Protein Tax-2 (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of HTLV-2)

6 entries

Human T-cell leukemia virus 3 (strain 2026ND) (HTLV-3) reference strain

Select_allDeselect_all
ENV_HTL32 Envelope glycoprotein gp63 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 46) ...
GAG_HTL32 Gag polyprotein (Pr53Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
PRO_HTL32 Gag-Pro polyprotein (Pr76Gag-Pro) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
REX_HTL32 Protein Rex (Rev homolog) (Rex-3)
POL_HTL32 Gag-Pro-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pro-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein ...
TAX_HTL32 Protein Tax-3 (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of HTLV-3)

9 entries

Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan ATK-1 subtype A) (HTLV-1)

Select_allDeselect_all
ENV_HTL1A Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 46) ...
HBZ_HTL1A HTLV-1 basic zipper factor (HBZ)
GAG_HTL1A Gag polyprotein (Pr53Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
P12I_HTL1A Accessory protein p12I
P30II_HTL1A Accessory protein p30II
PRO_HTL1A Gag-Pro polyprotein (Pr76Gag-Pro) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
REX_HTL1A Protein Rex (Rev homolog) (Rex-1) (p27Rex)
POL_HTL1A Gag-Pro-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pro-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein ...
TAX_HTL1A Protein Tax-1 (Protein X-LOR) (Protein PX) (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of ...

7 entries

Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Melanesia mel5 subtype C) (HTLV-1)

Select_allDeselect_all
ENV_HTL1L Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 46) ...
GAG_HTL1L Gag polyprotein (Pr53Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
HBZ_HTL1L HTLV-1 basic zipper factor (HBZ)
PRO_HTL1L Gag-Pro polyprotein (Pr76Gag-Pro) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
REX_HTL1L Protein Rex (Rev homolog) (Rex-1) (p27Rex)
POL_HTL1L Gag-Pro-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pro-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein ...
TAX_HTL1L Protein Tax-1 (Protein X-LOR) (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of HTLV-1)

6 entries

Human T-cell leukemia virus 3 (strain Pyl43) (HTLV-3)

Select_allDeselect_all
ENV_HTL3P Envelope glycoprotein gp63 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 46) ...
GAG_HTL3P Gag polyprotein (Pr53Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
PRO_HTL3P Gag-Pro polyprotein (Pr76Gag-Pro) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...
REX_HTL3P Protein Rex (Rev homolog) (Rex-3)
POL_HTL3P Gag-Pro-Pol polyprotein (Pr160Gag-Pro-Pol) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein ...
TAX_HTL3P Protein Tax-3 (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of HTLV-3)

4 entries

Bovine leukemia virus (isolate Japanese BLV-1) (BLV)

Select_allDeselect_all
ENV_BLVJ Envelope glycoprotein (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 51) ...
GAG_BLVJ Gag polyprotein [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p15 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); Core protein p12]
POL_BLVJ Pol polyprotein [Cleaved into: Reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H (RT) (EC 2.7.7.49) (EC 2.7.7.7) ...
VPRT_BLVJ Protease (EC 3.4.23.-)

3 entries

Bovine leukemia virus (isolate Australian) (BLV)

Select_allDeselect_all
ENV_BLVAU Envelope glycoprotein (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 51) ...
GAG_BLVAU Gag polyprotein [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p15 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); Core protein p12]
POL_BLVAU Pol polyprotein [Cleaved into: Reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H (RT) (EC 2.7.7.49) (EC 2.7.7.7) ...

3 entries

Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Zaire EL subtype B) (HTLV-1)

Select_allDeselect_all
ENV_HTL1F Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 46) ...
REX_HTL1F Protein Rex (Rev homolog) (Rex-1) (p27Rex)
TAX_HTL1F Protein Tax-1 (Protein X-LOR) (Trans-activating transcriptional regulatory protein of HTLV-1)

2 entries

Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan MT-2 subtype A) (HTLV-1)

Select_allDeselect_all
ENV_HTL1M Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 46) ...
GAG_HTL1M Gag polyprotein (Pr53Gag) [Cleaved into: Matrix protein p19 (MA); Capsid protein p24 (CA); ...

1 entry

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV)

ENV_BLV Envelope glycoprotein (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 51) ...

1 entry

Bovine leukemia virus (isolate American FLK) (BLV)

ENV_BLVAF Envelope glycoprotein (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 51) ...

1 entry

Bovine leukemia virus (isolate American VDM) (BLV)

ENV_BLVAV Envelope glycoprotein (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 51) ...

1 entry

Bovine leukemia virus (isolate Belgium LB285) (BLV)

ENV_BLVB2 Envelope glycoprotein (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 51) ...

1 entry

Bovine leukemia virus (isolate Belgium LB59) (BLV)

ENV_BLVB5 Envelope glycoprotein (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 51) ...

1 entry

Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea CH subtype A) (HTLV-1)

ENV_HTL1N Envelope glycoprotein gp62 (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 46) ...