Orbivirus

VIRION

Non enveloped, icosahedral, non-turreted virion with a triple capsid structure, about 80 nm in diameter. The intermediate capsid has a T=13 icosahedral symmetry, the inner capsid a T=2 icosahedral symmetry.

Virion maturation schemes
Virion structure at ViperDB

GENOME

Segmented linear dsRNA genome. Contains 10 segments coding for 12 proteins. Segments size range from 822 to 3,954 bp (BTV). Genome total size is 19,200 bp (BTV).

GENE EXPRESSION

The dsRNA genome is never completely uncoated, to prevent activation of antiviral state by the cell in response to dsRNA. The viral polymerase VP1 synthesizes a capped mRNA from each dsRNA segment. This capped mRNA is translocated to the cell cytoplasm where it is translated. VP6, NS3 and NS4 are presumably expressed by leaky scanning

REPLICATION

CYTOPLASMIC

  1. Attachement to host receptors mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis of virus into host cell.
  2. Particles are partially uncoated in endolysosomes, but not entirely, and penetrate in the cytoplasm.
  3. Early transcription of the dsRNA genome by viral polymerase occurs inside this sub-viral particle (naked core), so that dsRNA is never exposed to the cytoplasm.
  4. Full-length plus-strand transcripts from each of the dsRNA segments are synthesized. These plus-strand transcripts are used as templates for translation.
  5. Viral proteins and genomic RNAs aggregates in cytoplasmic viral factories.
  6. (+)RNAs are encapsidated in a sub-viral particle, in which they are transcribed to give RNA (-) molecules with which they become base-paired to produce dsRNA genomes.
  7. The capsid is assembled on the sub-viral particle.
  8. Mature virions are released presumably following cell death and associated breakdown of host plasma membrane.

Host-virus interaction

Apoptosis modulation

Bluetongue virus mediates host cell apoptosis via caspases activaton (caspases-8, caspases-9, caspase-3, and caspase-7) .

Innate immune response inhibition

Bluetongue virus NS4 protein might also be involved in counteracting the antiviral response of the host .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

101 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 11 complete proteome entries)

11 entries

Bluetongue virus 10 (isolate USA) (BTV 10) reference strain

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RDRP_BTV10RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (VP1)
VNS1_BTV10Non-structural protein NS1
VNS2_BTV10Non-structural protein NS2
VP2_BTV10Outer capsid protein VP2
VP3_BTV10Core protein VP3 (Major inner capsid protein)
VP4_BTV10Core protein VP4
VP5_BTV10Outer capsid protein VP5
VP6A_BTV10Protein VP6-A (Minor inner core protein VP6-A)
VP6B_BTV10Protein VP6-B (Minor inner core protein VP6-B)
VP7_BTV10Core protein VP7
VP8_BTV10Non-structural protein P8 (Non-structural protein NS3)

8 entries

Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate South Africa) (BTV 1)

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VNS1_BTV1SNon-structural protein NS1
VNS2_BTV1SNon-structural protein NS2
VP2_BTV1SOuter capsid protein VP2
VP3_BTV1SCore protein VP3 (Major inner capsid protein)
VP5_BTV1SOuter capsid protein VP5
VP6_BTV1SProtein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)
VP7_BTV1SCore protein VP7
VP8_BTV1SNon-structural protein P8 (Non-structural protein NS3)

8 entries

Bluetongue virus 11 (isolate USA) (BTV 11)

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VNS1_BTV11Non-structural protein NS1
VP2_BTV11Outer capsid protein VP2
VP3_BTV11Core protein VP3 (Major inner capsid protein)
VP4_BTV11Core protein VP4
VP5_BTV11Outer capsid protein VP5
VP6_BTV11Protein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)
VP7_BTV11Core protein VP7
VP8_BTV11Non-structural protein P8 (Non-structural protein NS3)

8 entries

Bluetongue virus 13 (isolate USA) (BTV 13)

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VNS1_BTV13Non-structural protein NS1
VP2_BTV13Outer capsid protein VP2
VP3_BTV13Core protein VP3 (Major inner capsid protein)
VP4_BTV13Core protein VP4
VP5_BTV13Outer capsid protein VP5
VP6_BTV13Protein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)
VP7_BTV13Core protein VP7
VP8_BTV13Non-structural protein P8 (Non-structural protein NS3)

8 entries

Bluetongue virus 17 (isolate USA) (BTV 17)

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VNS1_BTV17Non-structural protein NS1
VNS2_BTV17Non-structural protein NS2
VP2_BTV17Outer capsid protein VP2
VP3_BTV17Core protein VP3 (Major inner capsid protein)
VP5_BTV17Outer capsid protein VP5
VP6_BTV17Protein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)
VP7_BTV17Core protein VP7
VP8_BTV17Non-structural protein P8 (Non-structural protein NS3)

7 entries

African horse sickness virus 4 (AHSV-4)

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VNS1_AHSV4Non-structural protein NS1 (Hydrophobic tubular protein)
VNS3_AHSV4Non-structural protein NS3
VP2_AHSV4Outer capsid protein VP2
VP3_AHSV4Core protein VP3
VP4_AHSV4Core protein VP4 (Inner capsid protein VP4)
VP5_AHSV4Outer capsid protein VP5
VP7_AHSV4Core protein VP7 (Capsid protein VP7) (VP7 antigen)

7 entries

African horse sickness virus 6 (AHSV-6)

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VNS1_AHSV6Non-structural protein NS1
VNS3_AHSV6Non-structural protein NS3
VP2_AHSV6Outer capsid protein VP2
VP3_AHSV6Core protein VP3
VP5_AHSV6Outer capsid protein VP5
VP6_AHSV6Protein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)
VP7_AHSV6Core protein VP7 (Capsid protein VP7) (VP7 antigen)

7 entries

Bluetongue virus 2 (isolate USA) (BTV 2)

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VNS1_BTV2ANon-structural protein NS1
VP3_BTV2ACore protein VP3 (Major inner capsid protein)
VP4_BTV2ACore protein VP4
VP5_BTV2AOuter capsid protein VP5
VP6_BTV2AProtein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)
VP7_BTV2ACore protein VP7
VP8_BTV2ANon-structural protein P8 (Non-structural protein NS3)

6 entries

African horse sickness virus 9 (AHSV-9)

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RDRP_AHSV9RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (VP1)
VNS1_AHSV9Non-structural protein NS1
VNS2_AHSV9Non-structural protein NS2
VNS3_AHSV9Non-structural protein NS3
VP5_AHSV9Outer capsid protein VP5
VP7_AHSV9Core protein VP7 (Capsid protein VP7) (VP7 antigen)

6 entries

Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate Australia) (BTV 1)

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VNS1_BTV1ANon-structural protein NS1
VP2_BTV1AOuter capsid protein VP2
VP3_BTV1ACore protein VP3 (Major inner capsid protein)
VP5_BTV1AOuter capsid protein VP5
VP7_BTV1ACore protein VP7
VP8_BTV1ANon-structural protein P8 (Non-structural protein NS3)

4 entries

Broadhaven virus (BRD)

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VNS3_BRDNon-structural protein NS3
VP2_BRDStructural core protein VP2
VP5_BRDOuter capsid protein VP5
VP7_BRDCore protein VP7

4 entries

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus 1 (EHDV-1)

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VP2_EHDV1Outer capsid protein VP2
VP3_EHDV1Core protein VP3
VP5_EHDV1Outer capsid protein VP5
VP7_EHDV1Core protein VP7

3 entries

African horse sickness virus 3 (AHSV-3)

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VNS3_AHSV3Non-structural protein NS3
VP2_AHSV3Outer capsid protein VP2
VP6_AHSV3Protein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)

2 entries

Bluetongue virus 13 (isolate 13B89Z) (BTV 13)

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NS4_BTVBZProtein NS4
VP6_BTVBZProtein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)

2 entries

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (strain Alberta) (EHDV-2)

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VNS1_EHDV2Non-structural protein NS1 (Hydrophobic tubular protein)
VNS2_EHDV2Non-structural protein NS2

1 entry

African horse sickness virus 1 (AHSV-1)


VNS3_AHSV1Non-structural protein NS3

1 entry

African horse sickness virus 2 (AHSV-2)


VNS3_AHSV2Non-structural protein NS3

1 entry

African horse sickness virus 5 (AHSV-5)


VNS3_AHSV5Non-structural protein NS3

1 entry

African horse sickness virus 7 (AHSV-7)


VNS3_AHSV7Non-structural protein NS3

1 entry

African horse sickness virus 8 (AHSV-8)


VNS3_AHSV8Non-structural protein NS3

1 entry

Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate South Africa vaccine) (BTV 1)


VP2_BTV1VOuter capsid protein VP2

1 entry

Bluetongue virus 10 (BTV 10)


VNS2_BTV1XNon-structural protein NS2

1 entry

Bluetongue virus 20 (isolate Australia) (BTV 20)


VNS1_BTV20Non-structural protein NS1

1 entry

Bluetongue virus 3 (isolate South Africa vaccine) (BTV 3)


VP2_BTV3VOuter capsid protein VP2

1 entry

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (strain Australia) (EHDV-2)


VP3_EHDVACore protein VP3