Non-enveloped, about 38 nm in length and 22 nm in diameter (for MSV), twinned (geminate) incomplete T=1 icosahedral symmetry capsid that contains 22 pentameric capsomers made of 110 capsid proteins (CP). Each geminate particle contains only a single circular ssDNA.


Bipartite: components A and B (with some exceptions like TYLCV, ToLCV and AYVV which are monopartite), circular, ssDNA genome (+) of about 2.6 kb per component (5.2 kb in total). 3’ terminus has no poly(A) tract. There are coding regions in both the virion (positive) and complementary (negative) sense strands.
The genome is replicated through double-stranded intermediates. The replication (Rep) protein initiates and terminates rolling circle replication, the host DNA polymerase being used for DNA replication itself. There is a potential stem-loop structure in the intergenic region that includes a conserved nonanucleotide sequence (TAATATTAC) where ssDNA synthesis is initiated. Component B is dependent on A for replication. The A and B components each have a common region (CR), which consists of a block of approximately 200bp within the IR and corresponds to the non-coding region common for topocu- and begomoviruses. The common region also contains two divergent promoters which differentially regulate the temporal expression of the viral genes.


Transcription is bidirectional from the common region (CR). Proteins are expressed from subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs). Leaky scanning is probably used for the expression of some of the overlapping proteins.

In bipartite begomoviruses, the A component encodes five or six proteins. On the v-sense: the CP. On the c-sense: Rep, a transcriptional activator (TrAP/AL2), a replication enhancer (REn), AC4, and, in some strains an optional protein AV2. The B component encodes two proteins involved in movement. BC1 on the c-sense and BV1 on the v-sense.

Monopartite begomoviruses encode six proteins: Rep, TrAP, CP, REn, C4, and V2.



  1. Virus penetrates into the host cell.
  2. Uncoating, the viral ssDNA genome penetrates into the nucleus.
  3. The ssDNA is converted into dsDNA with the participation of cellular factors.
  4. bidirectional dsDNA transcription from the IR promoter produces viral mRNAs and translation of viral proteins.
  5. Replication is initiated by cleavage of the(+)strand by REP, and occurs by rolling circle producing ssDNA genomes.
  6. These newly synthesized ssDNA can either
    a) be converted to dsDNA and serve as a template for transcription/replication
    b) be encapsidated by CP and form virions released from the cell by budding
    c) be transported outside the nucleus, to a neighboring cell through plasmodesmata (cell-cell movement) with the help of viral movement proteins.

Host-virus interaction

Cell-cycle modulation

Begomovirus protein Rep is responsible for inhibiting host retinoblastoma protein and inducing transition from the G1 to S phase in preparation for virus replication since the virus targets differentiated non-dividing cells. .

Suppression of host silencing-mediated antiviral defense

Begomovirus viral proteins are able to suppress host cell RNA silencing

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

130 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 122 complete proteome entries)

7 entries

Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (isolate Puerto Rico-Japan) (BGYMV) reference strain

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AC4_BGYMJProtein AC4 (Protein AL4)
CAPSD_BGYMJCapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
MVP_BGYMJMovement protein BC1 (Movement protein BL1)
NSP_BGYMJNuclear shuttle protein (NSP) (Protein BR1) (Protein BV1)
REN_BGYMJReplication enhancer protein (REn) (15.6 kDa protein) (Protein AC3) (Protein ...
REP_BGYMJReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (40.2 kDa ...
TRAP_BGYMJTranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (19.6 kDa protein) (Protein AC2) ...

6 entries

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (strain Israel) (TYLCV) reference strain

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AC4_TYLCIProtein C4 (10.9 kDa protein) (Protein L4)
AV2_TYLCIProtein V2
CAPSD_TYLCICapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
REN_TYLCIReplication enhancer protein (REn) (15.6 kDa protein) (Protein C3) (Protein L3)
REP_TYLCIReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (Protein C1)
TRAP_TYLCITranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (Protein C2) (Protein L2)

9 entries

Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV)

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AC4_ICMVProtein AC4 (Protein AL4)
AV2_ICMVProtein AV2
CAPSD_ICMVCapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
MVP_ICMVMovement protein BC1 (Movement protein BL1)
NSP_ICMVNuclear shuttle protein (NSP) (Protein BR1) (Protein BV1)
REN_ICMVReplication enhancer protein (REn) (Protein AC3) (Protein AL3)
REP_ICMVReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (Protein AC1) ...
TRAP_ICMVTranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (Protein AC2) (Protein AL2)
YAL4_ICMVPutative uncharacterized protein AC5

8 entries

African cassava mosaic virus (isolate Nigerian) (ACMV) (Cassava latent virus (isolate Nigerian))

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AC4_CLVNProtein AC4 (Protein AL4)
AV2_CLVNUncharacterized 13.1 kDa protein
CAPSD_CLVNCapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
MVP_CLVNMovement protein BC1 (33.7 kDa protein) (Movement protein BL1)
NSP_CLVNNuclear shuttle protein (NSP) (29.4 kDa protein) (Protein BR1) (Protein BV1)
REN_CLVNReplication enhancer protein (REn) (15.9 kDa protein) (Protein AC3) (Protein ...
REP_CLVNReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (40.4 kDa ...
TRAP_CLVNTranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (15.2 kDa protein) (Protein AC2) ...

8 entries

African cassava mosaic virus (isolate West Kenyan 844) (ACMV) (Cassava latent virus (isolate West Kenyan 844))

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AC4_CLVKProtein AC4 (Protein AL4)
AV2_CLVKProtein AV2
CAPSD_CLVKCapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
MVP_CLVKMovement protein BC1 (33.7 kDa protein) (Movement protein BL1)
NSP_CLVKNuclear shuttle protein (NSP) (Protein BR1) (Protein BV1)
REN_CLVKReplication enhancer protein (REn) (15.9 kDa protein) (Protein AC3) (Protein ...
REP_CLVKReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (40.4 kDa ...
TRAP_CLVKTranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (15.2 kDa protein) (Protein AC2) ...

8 entries

Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (strain Vigna) (MYMV)

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AC4_MYMVVProtein AC4 (Protein AL4)
AV2_MYMVVProtein AV2
CAPSD_MYMVVCapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
MVP_MYMVVMovement protein BC1 (Movement protein BL1)
NSP_MYMVVNuclear shuttle protein (NSP) (Protein BR1) (Protein BV1)
REN_MYMVVReplication enhancer protein (REn) (Protein AC3) (Protein AL3)
REP_MYMVVReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (Protein AC1) ...
TRAP_MYMVVTranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (Protein AC2) (Protein AL2)

7 entries

Abutilon mosaic virus (isolate West India) (AbMV)

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AC4_ABMVWProtein AC4 (Protein AL4)
CAPSD_ABMVWCapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
MVP_ABMVWMovement protein BC1 (Movement protein BL1)
NSP_ABMVWNuclear shuttle protein (NSP) (Protein BR1) (Protein BV1)
REN_ABMVWReplication enhancer protein (REn) (Protein AC3) (Protein AL3)
REP_ABMVWReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (Protein AC1) ...
TRAP_ABMVWTranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (Protein AC2) (Protein AL2)

7 entries

Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (isolate Puerto Rico) (BGYMV) (Bean golden mosaic virus (isolate Puerto Rico))

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AC4_BGYMVProtein AC4 (Protein AL4)
CAPSD_BGYMVCapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
MVP_BGYMVMovement protein BC1 (Movement protein BL1)
NSP_BGYMVNuclear shuttle protein (NSP) (Protein BR1) (Protein BV1)
REN_BGYMVReplication enhancer protein (REn) (15.6 kDa protein) (Protein AC3) (Protein ...
REP_BGYMVReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (40.2 kDa ...
TRAP_BGYMVTranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (19.6 kDa protein) (Protein AC2) ...

7 entries

Cabbage leaf curl virus (isolate Jamaica) (CaLCuV)

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AC4_CALCVProtein AC4 (Protein AL4)
CAPSD_CALCVCapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
MVP_CALCVMovement protein BC1 (Movement protein BL1)
NSP_CALCVNuclear shuttle protein (NSP) (Protein BR1) (Protein BV1)
REN_CALCVReplication enhancer protein (REn) (15.6 kDa protein) (Protein AC3) (Protein ...
REP_CALCVReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (40.2 kDa ...
TRAP_CALCVTranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (Protein AC2) (Protein AL2)

7 entries

Potato yellow mosaic virus (isolate Venezuela) (PYMV)

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AC4_PYMVVProtein AC4 (Protein AL4)
CAPSD_PYMVVCapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
MVP_PYMVVMovement protein BC1 (Movement protein BL1)
NSP_PYMVVNuclear shuttle protein (NSP) (Protein BR1) (Protein BV1)
REN_PYMVVReplication enhancer protein (REn) (Protein AC3) (Protein AL3)
REP_PYMVVReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (Protein AC1) ...
TRAP_PYMVVTranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (Protein AC2) (Protein AL2)

7 entries

Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV)

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AC4_SLCVProtein AC4 (Protein AL4)
CAPSD_SLCVCapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
MVP_SLCVMovement protein BC1 (Movement protein BL1)
NSP_SLCVNuclear shuttle protein (NSP) (Protein BR1) (Protein BV1)
REN_SLCVReplication enhancer protein (REn) (Protein AC3) (Protein AL3)
REP_SLCVReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (Protein AC1) ...
TRAP_SLCVTranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (Protein AC2) (Protein AL2)

7 entries

Tomato golden mosaic virus (strain Yellow vein) (TGMV)

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AC4_TGMVYProtein AC4 (Protein AL4)
BC1_TGMVYMovement protein BC1 (Movement protein BL1)
CAPSD_TGMVYCapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
NSP_TGMVYNuclear shuttle protein (NSP) (Protein BR1) (Protein BV1)
REN_TGMVYReplication enhancer protein (REn) (Protein AC3) (Protein AL3)
REP_TGMVYReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (Protein AC1) ...
TRAP_TGMVYTranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (Protein AC2) (Protein AL2)

6 entries

Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV) (Pepper huasteco virus)

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AC4_PHUVProtein AC4 (Protein AL4)
CAPSD_PHUVCapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
NSP_PHUVNuclear shuttle protein (NSP) (Protein BR1) (Protein BV1)
REN_PHUVReplication enhancer protein (REn) (Protein AC3) (Protein AL3)
REP_PHUVReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (Protein AC1) ...
TRAP_PHUVTranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (Protein AC2) (Protein AL2)

6 entries

Tomato leaf curl virus (strain Australia) (ToLCV)

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AC4_TLCVAProtein C4 (10.9 kDa protein) (Protein L4)
AV2_TLCVAProtein V2
CAPSD_TLCVACapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
REN_TLCVAReplication enhancer protein (REn) (Protein C3) (Protein L3)
REP_TLCVAReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (Protein C1)
TRAP_TLCVATranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (Protein C2) (Protein L2)

6 entries

Tomato mottle virus (isolate Florida) (ToMoV)

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BC1_TMOVMovement protein BC1 (Movement protein BL1)
CAPSD_TMOVCapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
NSP_TMOVNuclear shuttle protein (NSP) (Protein BR1) (Protein BV1)
REN_TMOVReplication enhancer protein (REn) (Protein AC3) (Protein AL3)
REP_TMOVReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (Protein AC1) ...
TRAP_TMOVTranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (Protein AC2) (Protein AL2)

6 entries

Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV)

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AC4_TYLCCProtein C4 (10.9 kDa protein) (Protein L4)
AV2_TYLCCProtein V2
CAPSD_TYLCCCapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
REN_TYLCCReplication enhancer protein (REn) (Protein C3) (Protein L3)
REP_TYLCCReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (Protein C1)
TRAP_TYLCCTranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (Protein C2) (Protein L2)

6 entries

Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV)

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AC4_TYCSVProtein C4 (11.1 kDa protein) (Protein L4)
AV2_TYCSVProtein V2
CAPSD_TYCSVCapsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
REN_TYCSVReplication enhancer protein (REn) (Protein C3) (Protein L3)
REP_TYCSVReplication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (Protein C1)
TRAP_TYCSVTranscriptional activator protein (TrAP) (Protein C2) (Protein L2)

6 entries

Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (isolate Spain-1) (TYLCSV)

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AC4_TYCS1Protein C4 (10.9 kDa protein) (Protein L4)
AV2_TYCS1Protein V2
CAPSD_TYCS1Capsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
REN_TYCS1Replication enhancer protein (REn) (Protein C3) (Protein L3)
REP_TYCS1Replication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (Protein C1)
TRAP_TYCS1Transcriptional activator protein (TrAP) (Protein C2) (Protein L2)

6 entries

Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (isolate Spain-2) (TYLCSV)

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AC4_TYCS2Protein C4 (10.9 kDa protein) (Protein L4)
AV2_TYCS2Protein V2
CAPSD_TYCS2Capsid protein (Coat protein) (CP)
REN_TYCS2Replication enhancer protein (REn) (Protein C3) (Protein L3)
REP_TYCS2Replication-associated protein (Rep) (EC 2.7.7.-) (EC 3.1.21.-) (Protein C1)
TRAP_TYCS2Transcriptional activator protein (TrAP) (Protein C2) (Protein L2)