Non-enveloped. Small, icosahedral, about 60 nm in size. A single molecule of circular dsDNA is contained within the capsid, which is composed of 72 pentamers arranged on a T = 7 lattice.


Circular dsDNA, about 8 kb in size, associated with cellular histones.
On rare non-specific recombination, the viral genome can be integrated in host chromosome. This inactivates the integrated virus but can gives the host cell a replicative advantage sometimes leading to malignant tumours.


Only one strand of the genome is transcribed and yield two classes of proteins expressed by alternative splicing :
a) Early Proteins: non-structural regulatory proteins (E1-E7).
b) Late Proteins: the structural proteins L1 and L2.



Replication is divided in two distinct steps that are linked to the differentiation state of the host epithelial cell:

a) The plasmid replication takes place in the basal squamous epithelial cells. It corresponds to viral DNA replication in synchrony with the host cell chromosome in order to ensures an average of one viral genome per basal cell.

  1. Attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors mediates endocytosis into vesicles in the basal squamous epithelial cell.
  2. Transport to the nucleus and uncoating of the viral DNA.
  3. Early-region transcription and translation of the early proteins.
  4. Steady-state viral DNA nuclear replication. Requires the origin of DNA replication in cis and the viral E1 and E2 proteins in trans.
b) The vegetative replication, which occurs in differentiated keratinocytes. In these cells, which no longer undergo cellular DNA synthesis, there is a burst of viral DNA synthesis with active production of virions.
  1. Vegetative viral DNA synthesis.
  2. Transcription of the late region.
  3. Capsid proteins L1 and L2 synthesis.
  4. Nuclear capsid assembly and release of viruses.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

35 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 34 complete proteome entries)

9 entries

Bovine papillomavirus type 1 reference strain

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VE1_BPV1Replication protein E1 (EC (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_BPV1Regulatory protein E2
VE4_BPV1Protein E4
VE5_BPV1Protein E5
VE6_BPV1Protein E6
VE7_BPV1Protein E7
VE8E2_BPV1Protein E8^E2C
VL1_BPV1Major capsid protein L1
VL2_BPV1Minor capsid protein L2

7 entries

European elk papillomavirus (EEPV) reference strain

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VE1_PAPVEReplication protein E1 (EC (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_PAPVERegulatory protein E2
VE5_PAPVEProtein E5
VE6_PAPVEProtein E6
VE7_PAPVEProtein E7
VL1_PAPVEMajor capsid protein L1
VL2_PAPVEMinor capsid protein L2

10 entries

Bovine papillomavirus type 2

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VE1_BPV2Replication protein E1 (EC (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_BPV2Regulatory protein E2
VE3_BPV2Probable protein E3
VE4_BPV2Probable protein E4
VE5_BPV2Protein E5
VE6_BPV2Protein E6
VE7_BPV2Protein E7
VE8_BPV2Uncharacterized protein E8
VL1_BPV2Major capsid protein L1
VL2_BPV2Minor capsid protein L2

8 entries

Deer papillomavirus (DPV) (Deer fibroma virus)

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VE1_PAPVDReplication protein E1 (EC (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_PAPVDRegulatory protein E2
VE4_PAPVDProbable protein E4
VE6_PAPVDProtein E6
VE7_PAPVDProtein E7
VL1_PAPVDMajor capsid protein L1
VL2_PAPVDMinor capsid protein L2
VL3_PAPVDProbable protein L3

1 entry

Reindeer papillomavirus (RPV)

VE5_PAPVRProtein E5