Protoparvovirus

VIRION


Non-enveloped, round, T=1 icosahedral symmetry, 18-26 nm in diameter. The capsid consists of 60 copies of CP protein.

GENOME

Linear, ssDNA genome of about 4 to 6 kb in size. Both positive and negative strands are encapsidated, although the percentage of particles encapsidating the positive strand can be lower depending on the host cell. MVM packages predominantly negative-sense single strands, while LuIII encapsidates strands of both polarities with equal efficiency. ORFs for both the structural and non-structural proteins are located on the same DNA strand.
The genome is replicated through rolling-hairpin mechanism.

GENE EXPRESSION

Host proteins transcribe the genomes into mRNAs. Alternative splicing allows expression of both structural and non-structural proteins.

REPLICATION

NUCLEAR

  1. Attachement to host receptors initiates clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the virion into the host cell.
  2. The virion penetrates into the cytoplasm via permeabilization of host endosomal membrane.
  3. Microtubular transport of the virion toward the nucleus.
  4. The viral ssDNA genome penetrates into the nucleus.
  5. The ssDNA is converted into dsDNA by cellular proteins.
  6. dsDNA transcription gives rise to viral mRNAs when host cell enters S phase and translated to produce viral proteins.
  7. Replication occurs through rolling-hairpin mechanism, with NS1 endonuclease binding covalently to the 5’ genomic end.
  8. Individual ssDNA genomes are excised from replication concatemers by a process called junction resolution.
  9. These newly synthesized ssDNA can either
    a) be converted to dsDNA and serve as a template for transcription/replication
    b) be encapsidated to form new virions that are released from the cell by budding.

Host-virus interaction

Apoptosis modulation

Parvovirus infection induces host cell death in cancerous cells. Apoptosis is the major form of cell death. However, necrosis has also been reported during infection of the minute virus of mice and parvovirus H-1 .
H-1PV NS1 protein expression induces apoptosis via caspases activation and DNA damage signaling. Depending on cell type and growth conditions, H-1PV is able to induce apoptosis, necrosis, or cathepsin B-dependent cell death.

Cell-cycle modulation

H-1PV NS1 protein induces G2/M checkpoint arrest.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

25 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 19 complete proteome entries)

3 entries

Murine minute virus (strain MVM prototype) (MVM) (Murine minute virus (strain MVM(p))) reference strain

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CAPSD_MUMIPCapsid protein VP1 (Coat protein VP1)
NS1_MUMIPNon-structural protein NS1
NS2_MUMIPNon-structural protein NS2

2 entries

Canine parvovirus type 2 (isolate Dog/United States/CPV-N/1978) (CPV-2)

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CAPSD_PAVCNCapsid protein VP1 (Coat protein VP1)
VNCS_PAVCNNon-capsid protein NS-1 (Non-structural protein NS1)

2 entries

Feline panleukopenia virus (strain 193) (FPV)

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CAPSD_FPV19Capsid protein VP1 (Coat protein VP1)
VNCS_FPV19Non-capsid protein NS-1 (NCVP1) (Non-structural protein NS1)

2 entries

Hamster parvovirus H1

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CAPSD_PAVHHCapsid protein VP1 (Coat protein VP1)
VNCS_PAVHHNon-capsid protein NS-1 (NCVP1) (Non-structural protein NS1)

2 entries

Mink enteritis virus (strain Abashiri) (MEV)

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CAPSD_MEVACapsid protein VP1 (Coat protein VP1)
VNCS_MEVANon-capsid protein NS-1 (NCVP1) (Non-structural protein NS1)

2 entries

Murine minute virus (strain MVMi) (MVM) (Murine parvovirus)

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CAPSD_MUMIMCapsid protein VP1 (Coat protein VP1)
VNCS_MUMIMNon-capsid protein NS-1 (NCVP1) (Non-structural protein NS1)

2 entries

Parvovirus LuIII

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CAPSD_PAVL3Capsid protein VP1 (Coat protein VP1)
VNCS_PAVL3Non-capsid protein NS-1 (Non-structural protein NS1)

2 entries

Porcine parvovirus (strain Kresse) (PPV)

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CAPSD_PAVPKCapsid protein VP1 (Coat protein VP1)
VNCS_PAVPKNon-capsid protein NS-1 (Non-structural protein NS1)

2 entries

Porcine parvovirus (strain NADL-2) (PPV)

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CAPSD_PAVPNCapsid protein VP1 (Coat protein VP1)
VNCS_PAVPNNon-capsid protein NS-1 (Non-structural protein NS1)

1 entry

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2)


CAPSD_PAVCCapsid protein VP2 (Coat protein VP2)

1 entry

Canine parvovirus type 2 (isolate Dog/United States/CPV-b/1978) (CPV-2)


CAPSD_PAVCBCapsid protein VP1 (Coat protein VP1)

1 entry

Canine parvovirus type 2 (strain Dog/United States/780929/-) (CPV-2)


CAPSD_PAVC7Capsid protein VP1 (Coat protein VP1)

1 entry

Canine parvovirustype 2 (isolate Dog/United States/CPV-d/1988) (CPV-2)


CAPSD_PAVCDCapsid protein VP1 (Coat protein VP1)

1 entry

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)


CAPSD_FPVCapsid protein VP1 (Coat protein VP1)

1 entry

Porcine parvovirus (strain 90HS) (PPV)


CAPSD_PAVP9Capsid protein VP1 (Coat protein VP1)