Mardivirus

VIRION

Enveloped, spherical to pleomorphic, 120-200 nm in diameter T=16 icosahedral symmetry. The capsid consists of 162 capsomers and is surrounded by an amorphous tegument. Glycoproteins complexes are embedded in the lipid envelope.

GENOME

Monopartite, linear, dsDNA genome of about 175 kbp. The genome contains terminal and internal reiterated sequences.

GENE EXPRESSION

Each viral transcript usually encodes a single protein and has a promoter/regulatory sequence, a TATA box, a transcription initiation site, a 5’ leader sequence of 30-300 bp (not translated), a 3’ nontranslated sequence of 10-30 bp, and a poly A signal. There are many gene overlaps. There are only few spliced genes. Some of the expressed ORFs are antisense to each other. Some ORFs can be accessed from more than one promoter. There are some non-coding genes.

There are three types of genes: immediate-early, early and late. The immediate-early genes are transcribed immediately after infection and ensure the transcription of early genes, which encode the proteins necessary for the viral replication. The late genes mostly encode structural proteins. Standing apart are genes expressed during latency.

REPLICATION

NUCLEAR

Lytic replication:

  1. Attachment of the viral gB, gC, gD and gH proteins to host receptors mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell.
  2. Fusion with the plasma membrane to release the core and the tegument proteins into the host cytoplasm.
  3. The capsid is transported to the nuclear pore where the viral DNA is released into the nucleus.
  4. Transcription of immediate early genes which promote transcription of early genes and protect the virus against innate host immunity.
  5. Transcription of early viral mRNA by host polymerase II, encoding proteins involved in replication of the viral DNA.
  6. A first round of circular genome amplification occurs by bidirectional replication
  7. Synthesis of linear concatemer copies of viral DNA by rolling circle.
  8. Transcription of late mRNAs by host polymerase II, encoding structural proteins.
  9. Assembly of the virus in nuclear viral factories and budding through the inner lamella of the nuclear membrane which has been modified by the insertion of herpes glycoproteins, throughout the Golgi and final release at the plasma membrane.

Latent replication : replication of circular viral episome in tandem with the host cell DNA using the host cell replication machinery.

Host-virus interaction

Cell-cycle modulation

The conserved UL24 family of human alpha, beta and gamma herpesviruses induces a cell cycle arrest at G2/M transition through inactivation of the host cyclinB/cdc2 complex. Marek disease virus encodes an UL24 homolog that should fullfill this role.

Apoptosis modulation

MEQ antagonizes apoptosis possibly through regulation of its downstream target genes involved in apoptotic and/or anti-apoptotic pathways.

Host splicing inhibition

GaHV-2 MDV068 is an alternative splicing regulator of host mRNA.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

115 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 90 complete proteome entries)

90 entries

Gallid herpesvirus 2 (strain Chicken/Md5/ATCC VR-987) (GaHV-2) (Marek's disease herpesvirus type 1) reference strain

Select_all Deselect_all  
AN_GAHVMAlkaline nuclease (EC 3.1.-.-)
CEP1_GAHVMCytoplasmic envelopment protein 1
CEP2_GAHVMCytoplasmic envelopment protein 2
CEP3_GAHVMCytoplasmic envelopment protein 3
CVC1_GAHVMCapsid vertex component 1
CVC2_GAHVMCapsid vertex component 2
DNBI_GAHVMMajor DNA-binding protein
DPOL_GAHVMDNA polymerase catalytic subunit (EC 2.7.7.7) (EC 3.1.26.4)
DUT_GAHVMDeoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) (EC 3.6.1.23) (dUTP ...
EV45_GAHVMEnvelope protein UL45 homolog
GB_GAHVMEnvelope glycoprotein B (gB)
GC_GAHVMEnvelope glycoprotein C homolog (A antigen) (Glycoprotein A) (GA) (Secretory ...
GD_GAHVMEnvelope glycoprotein D (gD)
GE_GAHVMEnvelope glycoprotein E (gE)
GH_GAHVMEnvelope glycoprotein H (gH)
GI_GAHVMEnvelope glycoprotein I
GK_GAHVMEnvelope glycoprotein K
GL_GAHVMEnvelope glycoprotein L (gL)
GM_GAHVMEnvelope glycoprotein M (gM)
GN_GAHVMEnvelope glycoprotein N
HELI_GAHVMDNA replication helicase (EC 3.6.4.-)
HEPA_GAHVMDNA helicase/primase complex-associated protein (HEPA) (Primase-associated ...
ICP22_GAHVMTranscriptional regulator ICP22 homolog (Immediate early ICP22-like protein)
ICP27_GAHVMmRNA export factor ICP27 homolog (Transcriptional regulator IE63 homolog)
ICP4_GAHVMMajor viral transcription factor ICP4 homolog (Immediate-early protein IE175)
IL8H_GAHVMViral interleukin-8 homolog (vIL8)
ITP_GAHVMInner tegument protein
KITH_GAHVMThymidine kinase (EC 2.7.1.21)
LTP_GAHVMLarge tegument protein deneddylase (EC 3.4.19.12) (EC 3.4.22.-)
MB43_GAHVMMembrane protein UL43 homolog
MCP_GAHVMMajor capsid protein (MCP)
MEQ_GAHVMOncoprotein MEQ (MEQ)
NEC1_GAHVMNuclear egress protein 1
NEC2_GAHVMNuclear egress protein 2
NP03_GAHVMNuclear phosphoprotein UL3 homolog
OBP_GAHVMReplication origin-binding protein (OBP) (OriBP)
PAP_GAHVMDNA polymerase processivity factor (DNA-binding protein UL42) (Polymerase ...
PORTL_GAHVMPortal protein
PP24_GAHVMPhosphoprotein pp24
PP38_GAHVMPhosphoprotein pp38
PRIM_GAHVMDNA primase (EC 2.7.7.-)
RIR1_GAHVMRibonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC 1.17.4.1) ...
RIR2_GAHVMRibonucleoside-diphosphate reductase small subunit (EC 1.17.4.1) ...
SCAF_GAHVMCapsid scaffolding protein (Capsid protein P40) (Protease precursor) (pPR) ...
SCP_GAHVMSmall capsomere-interacting protein
SHUT_GAHVMVirion host shutoff protein (Vhs) (EC 3.1.27.-)
TEG1_GAHVMTegument protein UL46 homolog (Tegument protein VP11/12 homolog)
TEG3_GAHVMTegument protein UL14 homolog
TEG5_GAHVMTegument protein UL47 homolog
TEG6_GAHVMTegument protein UL55 homolog
TEG7_GAHVMTegument protein UL51 homolog
TG21_GAHVMTegument protein UL21 homolog
TRM1_GAHVMTripartite terminase subunit 1
TRM2_GAHVMTripartite terminase subunit 2
TRM3_GAHVMTripartite terminase subunit 3 (EC 3.1.-.-) (Terminase large subunit)
TRX1_GAHVMTriplex capsid protein 1
TRX2_GAHVMTriplex capsid protein 2
UL13_GAHVMSerine/threonine-protein kinase UL13 homolog (EC 2.7.11.1)
UL20_GAHVMProtein UL20 homolog
UL24_GAHVMProtein UL24 homolog
UL32_GAHVMPackaging protein UL32 homolog
UL4_GAHVMNuclear protein UL4 homolog
UNG_GAHVMUracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) (EC 3.2.2.27) (UNG)
US02_GAHVMProtein US2 homolog
US03_GAHVMProtein kinase US3 homolog (EC 2.7.11.1)
US10_GAHVMVirion protein US10 homolog
VG01_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 1 protein
VG02_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 2 protein
VG04_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 4 protein
VG06A_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 6a protein
VG06B_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 6b protein
VG07_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 7 protein
VG09_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 9 protein
VG11_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 11 protein
VG12_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 12 protein
VG69_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 69 protein
VG71_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 71 protein
VG72_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 72 protein
VG81_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 81 protein
VG82_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 82 protein
VG83_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 83 protein
VG85_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 85 protein
VG86_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 86 protein
VG87_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 87 protein
VG90_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 90 protein
VG93_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 93 protein
VG97_GAHVMUncharacterized gene 97 protein
VLIP_GAHVMVirulence factor MDV010 (Viral lipase homolog) (vLIP)
VP16_GAHVMTegument protein VP16 homolog (Alpha trans-inducing protein) (Alpha-TIF) (ORF10 ...
VP22_GAHVMTegument protein VP22

12 entries

Gallid herpesvirus 2 (strain GA) (GaHV-2) (Marek's disease herpesvirus type 1)

Select_all Deselect_all  
GC_GAHVGEnvelope glycoprotein C homolog (A antigen) (Glycoprotein A) (GA) (Secretory ...
GL_GAHVGEnvelope glycoprotein L (gL)
ICP4_GAHVGMajor viral transcription factor ICP4 homolog (Immediate-early protein IE175)
U1053_GAHVGUncharacterized 40.6 kDa protein
US03_GAHVGSerine/threonine-protein kinase US3 homolog (EC 2.7.11.1)
US10_GAHVGVirion protein US10 homolog
US384_GAHVGUncharacterized 14.2 kDa protein
US420_GAHVGUncharacterized 15.5 kDa protein
US426_GAHVGUncharacterized 15.7 kDa protein
US441_GAHVGUncharacterized 16.7 kDa protein
US453_GAHVGUncharacterized 16.6 kDa protein
VP38_GAHVG38 kDa phosphoprotein (Phosphoprotein pp38)

4 entries

Gallid herpesvirus 2 (strain RB-1b) (GaHV-2) (Marek's disease herpesvirus type 1)

Select_all Deselect_all  
GB_GAHVREnvelope glycoprotein B (gB)
GC_GAHVREnvelope glycoprotein C homolog (A antigen) (Glycoprotein A) (GA) (Secretory ...
GH_GAHVREnvelope glycoprotein H (gH)
KITH_GAHVRThymidine kinase (EC 2.7.1.21)

2 entries

Gallid herpesvirus 2 (strain bc-1) (GaHV-2) (Marek's disease herpesvirus type 1)

Select_all Deselect_all  
EV45_GAHVBEnvelope protein UL45 homolog
GC_GAHVBEnvelope glycoprotein C homolog (A antigen) (Glycoprotein A) (GA) (Secretory ...

2 entries

Meleagrid herpesvirus 1 (MeHV-1) (Turkey herpesvirus)

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GH_MEHV1Envelope glycoprotein H (gH)
KITH_MEHV1Thymidine kinase (EC 2.7.1.21)

2 entries

Meleagrid herpesvirus 1 (strain FC126) (MeHV-1) (Turkey herpesvirus)

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GC_MEHVFEnvelope glycoprotein C homolog (A antigen) (Glycoprotein A)
KITH_MEHVFThymidine kinase (EC 2.7.1.21)

2 entries

Meleagrid herpesvirus 1 (strain H2) (MeHV-1) (Turkey herpesvirus)

Select_all Deselect_all  
EV45_MEHVHEnvelope protein UL45 homolog (23.5 kDa protein)
GC_MEHVHEnvelope glycoprotein C homolog (A antigen) (Glycoprotein A)

1 entry

Gallid herpesvirus 2 (strain MD11/75C/R2) (GaHV-2) (Marek's disease herpesvirus type 1)


VP38_GAHVN38 kDa phosphoprotein (Phosphoprotein pp38)