Enveloped, spherical, icosahedral, 65-70nm in diameter, capsid with a T=4 icosahedral symmetry made of 240 monomers. The envelope contains 80 trimer spikes, each spike = 3 x E1/E2 heterodimers.


Monopartite, linear, ssRNA(+) genome of 9.7 kb. The genome is capped and polyadenylated.


The virion RNA is infectious and serves as both genome and viral messenger RNA. The whole genome is translated in a non-structural polyprotein which is processed by host and viral proteases. Structural polyprotein is expressed through a subgenomic mRNA.



  1. Attachement of the viral E glycoprotein to host receptors mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis of virus into the host cell.
  2. Fusion of virus membrane with host endosomal membrane. RNA genome is released into the cytoplasm.
  3. The positive-sense genomic ssRNA is translated into a polyprotein, which is cleaved into non-structural proteins necessary for RNA synthesis (replication and transcription).
  4. Replication takes place in cytoplasmic viral factories at the surface of endosomes. A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+).
  5. The dsRNA genome is transcribed/replicated thereby providing viral mRNAs/new ssRNA(+) genomes.
  6. Expression of the subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) gives rise to the structural proteins.
  7. Capsid assembly occurs in cytoplasm.
  8. The capsid is envelopped by budding at the plasma membrane where the virion exits the cell.

Host-virus interaction

Host gene expression shutoff by virus

Rubella virus capsid protein (Rubivirus) seems to mediate host translation shutoff by inhibiting host poly(A)-binding protein. .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

18 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

2 entries

Rubella virus (strain Therien) (RUBV) reference strain

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POLN_RUBVTNon-structural polyprotein p200 (p200)
POLS_RUBVTStructural polyprotein (p110)

2 entries

Rubella virus (strain BRD1) (RUBV)

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POLN_RUBVBNon-structural polyprotein p200 (p200)
POLS_RUBVBStructural polyprotein (p110)

2 entries

Rubella virus (strain BRDII) (RUBV)

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POLN_RUBVCNon-structural polyprotein p200 (p200)
POLS_RUBVCStructural polyprotein (p110)

2 entries

Rubella virus (strain Cendehill) (RUBV)

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POLN_RUBVDNon-structural polyprotein p200 (p200)
POLS_RUBVDStructural polyprotein (p110)

2 entries

Rubella virus (strain M33) (RUBV)

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POLN_RUBVMNon-structural polyprotein p200 (p200)
POLS_RUBVMStructural polyprotein (p110)

2 entries

Rubella virus (strain RA27/3 vaccine) (RUBV)

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POLN_RUBVRNon-structural polyprotein p200 (p200)
POLS_RUBVRStructural polyprotein (p110)

2 entries

Rubella virus (strain RN-UK86) (RUBV)

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POLN_RUBVNNon-structural polyprotein p200 (p200)
POLS_RUBVNStructural polyprotein (p110)

2 entries

Rubella virus (strain TO-336 vaccine) (RUBV)

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POLN_RUBVONon-structural polyprotein p200 (p200)
POLS_RUBVOStructural polyprotein (p110)

2 entries

Rubella virus (strain TO-336) (RUBV)

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POLN_RUBVVNon-structural polyprotein p200 (p200)
POLS_RUBVVStructural polyprotein (p110)