Molecular biology


Enveloped, spherical. Diameter from 80 to 120nm.


Segmented Negative-stranded RNA linear genome, L segment is between 6.8 and 12 kb, M segment between 3.2 and 4.9 kb and S segment between 1 and 3 kb.
Encodes for four to six proteins.


The viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (L) bind to a promoter on each encapsidated segment, and transcribes the mRNA. Transcription is terminated by a strong hairpin sequence at the end of each gene. mRNAs are capped by L protein during synthesis. Orthobunyavirus and Hantavirus express alternative ORF by leaky scanning Phlebovirus and Tospovirus have ambisense segment(s).



  1. Virus attaches to host receptors though Gn-Gc glycoprotein dimer, and is endocytosed into vesicles in the host cell.
  2. Fusion of virus membrane with the vesicle membrane; ribonucleocapsid segments are released in the cytoplasm.
  3. Transcription, viral mRNAs are capped in the cytoplasm.
  4. Replication presumably starts when enough nucleoprotein is present to encapsidate neo-synthetized antigenomes and genomes.
  5. The ribonucleocapsids buds at Golgi apparatus, releasing the virion by exocytosis.

Host-virus interaction

Inhibition of host innate immunity

The Nairovirus L contains an ovarian tumor domain-containing Deubiquitinase that targets activated RIG-I to control innate immune signaling.

Inhibition of host transcription initiation

The Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) NSs protein plays a role in the inhibition of host RNA polymerase II

The Rift valley fever virus NSs protein instead plays a role in the inhibition of the host transcription initiation by acting on host TFIIH.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

98 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 38 complete proteome entries)

5 entries

Tomato spotted wilt virus (strain Brazilian Br-01) (TSWV) reference strain

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GP_TSWV1Envelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
L_TSWV1RNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (EC (Large structural ...
MVP_TSWV1Movement protein (MVP) (Non-structural movement protein) (NSm)
NCAP_TSWV1Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_TSWV1Non-structural protein NS-S

4 entries

Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) reference strain

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GP_BUNYWEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
L_BUNYWRNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (EC (Large structural ...
NCAP_BUNYWNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_BUNYWNon-structural protein NS-S

4 entries

Bunyavirus La Crosse (isolate Human/United States/L78/1978) reference strain

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GP_BUNL8Envelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
L_BUNL8RNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (EC (Large structural ...
NCAP_BUNL8Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_BUNL8Non-structural protein NS-S

4 entries

Rift valley fever virus (strain ZH-548 M12) (RVFV) reference strain

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GP_RVFVZEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
L_RVFVZRNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (EC (Large structural ...
NCAP_RVFVZNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_RVFVZNon-structural protein S (NSs)

4 entries

Uukuniemi virus (strain S23) (Uuk) reference strain

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GP_UUKSEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
L_UUKSRNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (EC (Large structural ...
NCAP_UUKSNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_UUKSNon-structural protein NS-S

3 entries

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (strain Nigeria/IbAr10200/1970) (CCHFV) reference strain

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GP_CCHFIEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
L_CCHFIRNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (Large structural protein) ...
NCAP_CCHFINucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

3 entries

Dugbe virus (isolate ArD44313) (DUGV) reference strain

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GP_DUGBAEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
L_DUGBARNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (Large structural protein) ...
NCAP_DUGBANucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

3 entries

Hantaan virus (strain 76-118) (Korean hemorrhagic fever virus) reference strain

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GP_HANTVEnvelopment polyprotein (Glycoprotein precursor) (M polyprotein)
L_HANTVRNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (EC (Large structural ...
NCAP_HANTVNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

4 entries

Bovine Schmallenberg virus (isolate Bovine/BH80/Germany/2011) (SBV)

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GP_SBVBHEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
L_SBVBHRNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (EC (Large structural ...
NCAP_SBVBHNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_SBVBHNon-structural protein NS-S

4 entries

Puumala virus (strain Bank vole/Russia/CG1820/1984)

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GP_PUUMGEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
L_PUUMGRNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (EC (Large structural ...
NCAP_PUUMGNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_PUUMGNon-structural protein NS-S (NSs)

4 entries

Puumala virus (strain Sotkamo/V-2969/81)

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GP_PUUMSEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
L_PUUMSRNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (EC (Large structural ...
NCAP_PUUMSNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_PUUMSNon-structural protein NS-S (NSs)

3 entries

Bunyavirus germiston

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GP_BUNGEEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
NCAP_BUNGENucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_BUNGENon-structural protein NS-S

3 entries

Bunyavirus snowshoe hare

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GP_BUNSHEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
NCAP_BUNSHNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_BUNSHNon-structural protein NS-S

3 entries

Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV)

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GP_INSVEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
MVP_INSVMovement protein (MVP) (Non-structural movement protein) (NSm)
NCAP_INSVNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

3 entries

Maguari virus

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NCAP_MAGVNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_MAGVNon-structural protein NS-S
Y9KD_MAGVPutative uncharacterized 9.3 kDa protein

3 entries

Punta toro phlebovirus

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GP_PTPVEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
NCAP_PTPVNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_PTPVNon-structural protein NS-S

3 entries

Toscana virus (Tos)

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L_TOSVRNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (EC (Large structural ...
NCAP_TOSVNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_TOSVNon-structural protein NS-S

2 entries

Aino virus

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NCAP_AINOVNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_AINOVNon-structural protein NS-S

2 entries

Bunyavirus La Crosse

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NCAP_BUNLCNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_BUNLCNon-structural protein NS-S

2 entries

Impatiens necrotic spot virus (strain NL-07) (INSV)

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NCAP_INSVNNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_INSVNNon-structural protein NS-S

2 entries

Prospect Hill virus (PHV)

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GP_PHVEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
NCAP_PHVNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

2 entries

Puumala virus (strain K27)

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GP_PUUMKEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
NCAP_PUUMKNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

2 entries

Puumala virus (strain P360)

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GP_PUUMPEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
NCAP_PUUMPNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

2 entries

Sandfly fever sicilian virus (SFS)

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NCAP_SFSVNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_SFSVNon-structural protein NS-S

2 entries

Seoul virus (strain 80-39)

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GP_SEOU8Envelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
L_SEOU8RNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (EC (Large structural ...

2 entries

Seoul virus (strain SR-11) (Sapporo rat virus)

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GP_SEOUSEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)
NCAP_SEOUSNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

2 entries

Tomato spotted wilt virus (strain Bulgarian L3) (TSWV)

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NCAP_TSWVLNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)
NSS_TSWVLNon-structural protein NS-S

1 entry

Bunyavirus La Crosse (isolate Aedes triseriatus/United States/L74/1974)

GP_BUNL7Envelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)

1 entry

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (isolate C68031) (CCHFV)

NCAP_CCHFVNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

1 entry

Dugbe virus

NCAP_DUGBVNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

1 entry

Hantaan virus (strain B-1) (Korean hemorrhagic fever virus)

GP_HANTBEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)

1 entry

Hantaan virus (strain Hojo) (Hojo virus) (Korean hemorrhagic fever virus)

GP_HANTHEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)

1 entry

Hantaan virus (strain Lee) (Lee virus) (Korean hemorrhagic fever virus)

GP_HANTLEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)

1 entry

Hazara virus (isolate JC280)

NCAP_HAZVJNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

1 entry

New York virus (NYV)

GP_NYVEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)

1 entry

Puumala virus (strain Evo/12CG/93)

NCAP_PUUMENucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

1 entry

Puumala virus (strain Udmurtia/894CG/91)

NCAP_PUUMUNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

1 entry

Rift valley fever virus (RVFV)

GP_RVFVEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)

1 entry

Seoul virus (strain R22)

GP_SEOUREnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)

1 entry

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)

GP_TSWVEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)

1 entry

Tomato spotted wilt virus (isolate D) (TSWV)

GP_TSWVDEnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)

1 entry

Tomato spotted wilt virus (strain Brazilian Br-03) (TSWV) (Tomato chlorotic spot virus)

NCAP_TSWV3Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

1 entry

Tomato spotted wilt virus (strain Hawaiian) (TSWV)

NCAP_TSWVHNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

1 entry

Tomato spotted wilt virus (strain Regular2A) (TSWV)

GP_TSWVREnvelopment polyprotein (M polyprotein)

1 entry

Tomato spotted wilt virus (strain SA-05) (TSWV) (Groundnut ringspot virus)

NCAP_TSWVSNucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)