Two vaccines licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are available for preventing monkeypox infection ? Vaccinia Virus Vaccines: Past, Present and Future

MVA-BN (trademark JYNNEOS,also known as Imvamune or Imvanex) against Smallpox and Monkeypox. Vaccine Live, Non-Replicating ( it cannot reproduce in human cells): Modified Vaccinia Ankara (approved 2019 efficacvy against monkey?pox: two doses of Jynneos administered 28 days apart Administration: subcutaneously as two doses separated by 4 weeks

Acambis clone 2000 (ACAM2000). Against Smallpox [Vaccinia] Vaccine, Live), a replication-competent vaccine (PMID: 20531961) clones by plaque purification from a pool of Dryvax? vaccines. Administration: multiple puncture technique one dose?

Aventis Pasteur Smallpox Vaccine (APSV):is an investigational vaccine that may be used in a smallpox emergency under the appropriate regulatory mechanism (i.e., Investigational New Drug application [IND] or Emergency Use Authorization [EUA]). Administration: multiple puncture technique one dose?

1950-1980- heat-stable, freeze-dried vaccine. The current U.S. licensed smallpox vaccine (Dryvax, Wyeth Laboratories, Inc.) was prepared from calf lymph using the New York City Board of Health (NYCBOH) strain of vaccinia. Production of this vaccine was discontinued in 1982. The National Pharmaceutical Stockpile also includes the Aventis Pasteur vaccine, which was also manufactured from calf lymph. Multiple other strains of vaccinia have been used in other regions the world.

Vaccinia virus. uncertain is the biological origin of VACV, although studies have suggested that the virus may have been derived from a horsepox-like virus ancestor (1).

strain: Ankara non replicative in human: modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) The highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) strain was obtained after passing the chorioallantoid vaccinia virus Ankara (CVA) strain approximately 570 times in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). As a result of the adaptation process, the virus lost about 30?kb of its DNA and became unable to replicate in most mammalian cells

The VACV Lister strain (VACV-LST), developed at the Lister Institute in the United Kingdom, is a vaccine strain that was used throughout the globe during the smallpox vaccination years. In fact, VACV-LST is considered the most widely distributed smallpox vaccine at that time, being used in the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia (2, 10). Like MVA, VACV-LST is significantly attenuated and apparently caused fewer adverse events than other smallpox vaccines available at the time of the smallpox eradication campaign (10).

New York City Board of Health (NYCBOH) strain of vaccinia (Dryvax). Multiclonal. Production of this vaccine was discontinued in 1982. was grown on the skin of calves, an outdated technique that poses an unnecessary risk of contamination.

Western Reserve: replicative The VACV Western Reserve (VACV-WR) strain originated from repeatedly passing the VACV New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) strain in rabbits, mice, and diverse cell cultures. Adaptation to these hosts rendered VACV-WR highly neuropathogenic to mice and able to replicate to high titers in different mammalian tissues, making it unsuitable to be used as a vaccine (2, 11). Nevertheless, VACV-WR became the model virus for most studies concerning aspects of VACV and poxvirus biology.

(PMID PMID: 30567985)