All current vaccines are reused vaccines developed against smallpox. Several smallpox vaccines have been shown to be effective against monkeypox, which can be explained by a dozen immunogenic surface proteins common to both viruses. Vaccines have been based on vaccinia viruses (VACV) since the 19th century. The biological origin of VACV is uncertain, although studies suggest that the virus may have originated from a horsepox-like viral precursor.
MVA- BN (trademark JYNNEOS, also known as Imvamune or Imvanex) for smallpox and monkeypox. Vaccinia vaccine, non-replicative Modified Vaccinia Ankara which is non-replicating, thereby reducing the risks of adverse effect.(licensed 2019 https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-live-non-replicating-vaccine-prevent-smallpox-and-monkeypox) Efficacy against monkeypox: Administration: administered subcutaneously as two doses 4 weeks apart,
Acambis clone 2000 (ACAM2000 Against smallpox. Vaccinia vaccine, replicative. Cloned by plaque purification from a pool of Dryvax vaccines.(se below) Administration: multiple puncture technique, one dose?
Aventis Pasteur Smallpox Vaccine (APSV). Vaccinia vaccine replicative. It is an investigational vaccine that can be used in a smallpox emergency under the appropriate regulatory mechanism (i.e., Investigational New Drug application [IND] or Emergency Use Authorization [EUA]). Administration: multiple puncture technique, one dose?
Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). Vaccinia vaccine, non-replicative The highly attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) strain was obtained after passing the chorioallantoid vaccinia virus Ankara (CVA) strain approximately 570 times in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). As a result of the adaptation process, the virus lost about 30 kb of its DNA and became unable to replicate in most mammalian cells. Administration: multiple puncture technique, one dose?
VACV Lister strain (VACV-LST), Vaccinia vaccine, replicative It was developed at the Lister Institute in the United Kingdom, is a vaccine strain that was used worldwide during the years of smallpox vaccination. In fact, VACV-LST is considered the most widely used smallpox vaccine at the time, having been used in the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia. VACV-LST is also highly attenuated and apparently caused fewer adverse events than other smallpox vaccines available at the time of the smallpox eradication campaign. Administration: multiple puncture technique, one dose?
New York City Board of Health (NYCBOH)(Dryvax) Multiclonal vaccinia vaccine, replicative. It was produced from calf lymph using the New York City Board of Health (NYCBOH) vaccinia strain. Production of this vaccine has been discontinued in 1982. Administration: multiple puncture technique, one dose?
Western Reserve Vacinia strain, replicative The Western Reserve (VACV-WR) strain of VACV was created by replicating the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) strain of VACV in rabbits, mice, and various cell cultures. Adaptation to these hosts resulted in VACV-WR being highly neuropathogenic to mice and capable of replicating to high titers in various mammalian tissues, making it unsuitable as a vaccine. Nevertheless, VACV-WR has become the model virus for most studies on aspects of VACV and poxvirus biology.