Bromovirus

VIRION

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Non-enveloped, virion about 26 nm in diameter with T=3 icosahedral symmetry, composed of 180 capsid proteins: 12 pentamers and 20 hexamers. The genomic RNA does not fill completely the interior of the particle, there is a central cavity of about 8 nm.
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GENOME

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Segmented, tripartite linear ssRNA(+) genome composed of RNA1, RNA2, RNA3. Each genomic segment has a 3' tRNA-like structure and a 5'cap.

GENE EXPRESSION

Genomic RNA serves as messenger RNAs. RNA1 and RNA2 encode respectively proteins 1a and 2a, both involved in genome replication and internal transcription of sgRNA4 from the minus-strand copy of RNA3. RNA3 and sgRNA4 are translated respectively into movement and capsid proteins.

REPLICATION

CYTOPLASMIC

  1. Virus penetrates into the host cell.
  2. Uncoating, and release of the viral genomic RNA into the cytoplasm.
  3. Expression of protein 1a and 2a to produce replication proteins.
  4. Replication occurs in viral factories made of membrane vesicles derived from the ER (spherules). A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+).
  5. The dsRNA genome is transcribed/replicated thereby providing viral mRNAs/new ssRNA(+) genomes.
  6. Subgenomic RNA4 is translated producing capsid proteins.
  7. Assembly of new virus particles.
  8. Viral movement protein triggers the formation of tubular structures that mediate virion cell-to-cell transfer via a tubule-guided mechanism.