Gammapapillomavirus (taxid:325455)



Non-enveloped. Small, icosahedral, about 60 nm in size. A single molecule of circular dsDNA is contained within the T=7 icosahedral capsid, which is composed of 72 pentamers.



Circular dsDNA, about 8 kb in size, associated with cellular histones.
On rare non-specific recombination, the viral genome can be integrated in host chromosome. This inactivates the integrated virus but can gives the host cell a replicative advantage sometimes leading to malignant tumours.


Only one strand of the genome is transcribed and yield two classes of proteins expressed by alternative splicing :
a) Early Proteins: non-structural regulatory proteins (E1-E7).
b) Late Proteins: the structural proteins L1 and L2.



Replication is divided in two distinct steps that are linked to the differentiation state of the host epithelial cell:

a) The plasmid replication takes place in the basal squamous epithelial cells. It corresponds to viral DNA replication in synchrony with the host cell chromosome in order to ensures an average of one viral genome per basal cell.

  1. Attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors mediates endocytosis into vesicles in the basal squamous epithelial cell.
  2. Transport to the nucleus and uncoating of the viral DNA.
  3. Early-region transcription and translation of the early proteins.
  4. Steady-state viral DNA nuclear replication. Requires the origin of DNA replication in cis and the viral E1 and E2 proteins in trans.

b) The vegetative replication, which occurs in differentiated keratinocytes. In these cells, which no longer undergo cellular DNA synthesis, there is a burst of viral DNA synthesis with active production of virions.

  1. Vegetative viral DNA synthesis.
  2. Transcription of the late region.
  3. Capsid proteins L1 and L2 synthesis.
  4. Nuclear capsid assembly and release of viruses.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

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32 entries grouped by strain

8 entries

Human papillomavirus 4 reference strain

VE1_HPV04 Replication protein E1 (EC (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV04 Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV04 Protein E6
VE7_HPV04 Protein E7
VL2_HPV04 Minor capsid protein L2
VE8E2_HPV04 Protein E8^E2C
VE4_HPV04 Protein E4
VL1_HPV04 Major capsid protein L1

8 entries

Human papillomavirus 65 reference strain

VE1_HPV65 Replication protein E1 (EC (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV65 Regulatory protein E2
VE6_HPV65 Protein E6
VE7_HPV65 Protein E7
VL2_HPV65 Minor capsid protein L2
VE8E2_HPV65 Protein E8^E2C
VE4_HPV65 Protein E4
VL1_HPV65 Major capsid protein L1

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 48 reference strain

VE6_HPV48 Protein E6
VE7_HPV48 Protein E7
VE1_HPV48 Replication protein E1 (EC (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV48 Regulatory protein E2
VL2_HPV48 Minor capsid protein L2
VL1_HPV48 Major capsid protein L1

6 entries

Human papillomavirus type 60 reference strain

VE6_HPV60 Protein E6
VE7_HPV60 Protein E7
VE1_HPV60 Replication protein E1 (EC (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VE2_HPV60 Regulatory protein E2
VL2_HPV60 Minor capsid protein L2
VL1_HPV60 Major capsid protein L1

4 entries

Human papillomavirus type 50 reference strain

VE7_HPV50 Protein E7
VE2_HPV50 Regulatory protein E2
VL2_HPV50 Minor capsid protein L2
VL1_HPV50 Major capsid protein L1