Non-enveloped, capsid of about 38-40 nm in diameter, with T=3 icosahedral symmetry. The capsid is composed of 180 VP1 proteins. Small empty virions are about 23nm in diameter, and would be of T=1 icosahedral symmetry, composed of 60 VP1 proteins.
Monopartite, linear ssRNA(+) genome of 7.3 to 8.3 kb. The 5'-terminus is linked to a VPg protein and the 3'-terminus has a poly(A) tract.n (VPg)is covalently linked to genome, whereas 3'-terminus is polyadenylated.
The virion RNA is infectious and serves as both genome and viral messenger RNA. Cleavage of ORF1 polyprotein by the virus-encoded 3C-like cysteine proteinase yields the mature nonstructural proteins. Subgenomic RNA encodes the capsid protein and VP2 minor structural protein which is expressed through RNA termination-reinitiation. Murine norovirus express an alternative ORF from the CP mRNA by leaky scanning.
- Attachement to host receptors mediates clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytosis of the virus.
- Uncoating, and release of the viral genomic RNA into the cytoplasm.
- VPg is removed from the viral RNA, which is then translated into a processed ORF1 polyprotein to yield the replication proteins.
- Replication occurs in viral factories. A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+).
- The dsRNA genome is transcribed/replicated thereby providing viral mRNAs/new ssRNA(+) genomes.
- Subgenomic RNA translation gives rise to the capsid protein and VP2.
- Assembly of new virus particles and release by cell lysis.