Ebolavirus cycle

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  1. Attachment to host receptors through GP glycoprotein like DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR .
  2. Cellular receptor like HAVCR1(TIM1) binds phosphatidyl serine on virion membrane and a signal is transduced into the cell that trigger the macropinocytosis program.
  3. The virion enters the cell by Macropinocytosis. In some culture cells, GP glycoprotein can be processed by host Cathepsin L and Cathepsin B into 19kDa GP1. But this processing is not happening in all cells or for all ebolavirus.
  4. GP1 interacts with host NPC1, in late macropinosome and promotes Fusion of virus membrane with the vesicle membrane. The ribonucleocapsid is then released into the cytoplasm.
  5. Sequential transcription, viral mRNAs are capped and polyadenylated by polymerase stuttering in the cytoplasm.
  6. Replication presumably starts when enough nucleoprotein is present to encapsidate neo-synthetized antigenomes and genomes.
  7. The ribonucleocapsid interacts with the matrix protein, and buds via the host ESCRT complexes from the plasma membrane, releasing the virion .