Enveloped, spherical to pleomorphic, 150-200 nm in diameter, T=16 icosahedral symmetry. Capsid consists of 162 capsomers and is surrounded by an amorphous tegument. Glycoproteins complexes are embeded in the lipid envelope.


Monopartite, linear, dsDNA genome of about 180 kb. The genome contains terminal and internal reiterated sequences.


Each viral transcript usually encodes a single protein and has a promoter/regulatory sequence, a TATA box, a transcription initiation site, a 5' leader sequence of 30-300 bp (not translated), a 3' nontranslated sequence of 10-30 bp, and a poly A signal. There are many gene overlaps. There are only few spliced genes. Some of the expressed ORFs are antisense to each other. Some ORFs can be accessed from more than one promoter. There are some non-coding genes.



Lytic replication:

  1. Attachment of the viral glycoproteins to host receptors mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell.
  2. Fusion with the plasma membrane to release the core and the tegument proteins into the host cytoplasm.
  3. The capsid is transported to the nuclear pore where the viral DNA is released into the nucleus.
  4. Transcription of immediate early genes which promote transcription of early genes and protect the virus against innate host immunity.
  5. Transcription of early viral mRNA by host polymerase II, encoding proteins involved in replication of the viral DNA.
  6. A first round of circular genome amplification occurs by bidirectional replication
  7. Synthesis of linear concatemer copies of viral DNA by rolling circle.
  8. Transcription of late mRNAs by host polymerase II, encoding structural proteins.
  9. Assembly of the virus in nuclear viral factories and budding through the inner lamella of the nuclear membrane which has been modified by the insertion of herpes glycoproteins, throughout the Golgi and final release at the plasma membrane.

Latent replication : replication of circular viral episome in tandem with the host cell DNA using the host cell replication machinery.

Host-virus interaction

Apoptosis modulation

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 encodes a bcl-2 homologue that may inhibit host apoptosis.

Host splicing inhibition

Modulates the viral and host mRNA expression by exporting unspliced mRNA, thereby inducing alternative splicing.

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70 entries

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (strain C500) (AlHV-1) (Malignant catarrhal fever virus) reference strain

PORTL_ALHV1 Portal protein
PRIM_ALHV1 DNA primase (EC 2.7.7.-)
SCAF_ALHV1 Capsid scaffolding protein (Capsid protein 17) (Protease precursor) (pPR) [Cleaved into: Assemblin ...
SCP_ALHV1 Small capsomere-interacting protein
SEMA_ALHV1 Semaphorin-like protein A3
RIR2_ALHV1 Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase small subunit (EC (Ribonucleotide reductase small ...
RIR1_ALHV1 Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC (Ribonucleotide reductase ...
LTP_ALHV1 Large tegument protein deneddylase (EC (EC 3.4.22.-)
ITP_ALHV1 Inner tegument protein
MCP_ALHV1 Major capsid protein (MCP)
NEC1_ALHV1 Nuclear egress protein 1
NEC2_ALHV1 Nuclear egress protein 2
CVC1_ALHV1 Capsid vertex component 1
CVC2_ALHV1 Capsid vertex component 2
BRLF1_ALHV1 Putative transcription activator BRLF1 homolog
DNBI_ALHV1 Major DNA-binding protein
DPOL_ALHV1 DNA polymerase catalytic subunit (EC
CEP1_ALHV1 Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 1
CEP3_ALHV1 Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 3
CEP2_ALHV1 Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 2
AN_ALHV1 Shutoff alkaline exonuclease (SOX) (EC 3.1.-.-)
GM_ALHV1 Envelope glycoprotein M (gM)
GN_ALHV1 Envelope glycoprotein N
HELI_ALHV1 DNA replication helicase (EC 3.6.4.-)
GL_ALHV1 Envelope glycoprotein L (gL)
IE63_ALHV1 Immediate-early phosphoprotein 57
GB_ALHV1 Envelope glycoprotein B (gB)
GH_ALHV1 Envelope glycoprotein H (gH)
KITH_ALHV1 Thymidine kinase (EC
DUT_ALHV1 Deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) (EC (dUTP pyrophosphatase)
VGA2_ALHV1 Uncharacterized protein A2
VGA6_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene A6 protein
VGA8_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene A8 protein
VGA9_ALHV1 Putative apoptosis regulator A9
VP03_ALHV1 Probable tegument protein antigen 3
VG23_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene 23 protein
VG27_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene 27 protein
VG48_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene 48 protein
VG59_ALHV1 DNA polymerase processivity factor
VG73_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene 73 protein
VP75_ALHV1 Probable membrane antigen 75 (Tegument protein)
TRM1_ALHV1 Tripartite terminase subunit 1
TRM2_ALHV1 Tripartite terminase subunit 2
TRM3_ALHV1 Tripartite terminase subunit 3 (EC 3.1.-.-) (Terminase large subunit)
TEG7_ALHV1 Tegument protein UL51 homolog (Uncharacterized gene 55 protein)
VG36_ALHV1 Putative tyrosine kinase 36 (EC
VG45_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene 45 protein
VGA1_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene A1 protein
UL49_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene 66 protein
UL24_ALHV1 Protein UL24 homolog
VG10_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene 10 protein
VG11_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene 11 protein
VG40_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene 40 protein
VG52_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene 52 protein
UL32_ALHV1 Packaging protein UL32 homolog
UL87_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene 24 protein
UNG_ALHV1 Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) (EC (UNG)
VG58_ALHV1 Gene 58 protein
VGA4_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene A4 protein
VGA7_ALHV1 Putative C-type lectin protein A7
UL79_ALHV1 Gene 18 protein
UL92_ALHV1 Gene 31 protein
UL96_ALHV1 Gene 35 protein
TRX1_ALHV1 Triplex capsid protein 1
TRX2_ALHV1 Triplex capsid protein 2
UL91_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene 30 protein
UL95_ALHV1 Gene 34 protein
VG41_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene 41 protein
VGA10_ALHV1 Uncharacterized gene A10 protein
VGA5_ALHV1 G-protein coupled receptor A5

1 entry

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (strain WC11) (AlHV-1) (Malignant catarrhal fever virus)

KITH_AHV1W Thymidine kinase (EC