Epsilonpapillomavirus (taxid:325459)



Non-enveloped. Small, icosahedral, about 60 nm in size. A single molecule of circular dsDNA is contained within the T=7 icosahedral capsid, which is composed of 72 pentamers.



Circular dsDNA, about 8 kb in size, associated with cellular histones, encoding for 6 proteins.
On rare non-specific recombination, the viral genome can be integrated in host chromosome. This inactivates the integrated virus but can gives the host cell a replicative advantage sometimes leading to malignant tumours.


Only one strand of the genome is transcribed and yield two classes of proteins expressed by alternative splicing :
a) Early Proteins: non-structural regulatory proteins (E1-E7).
b) Late Proteins: the structural proteins L1 and L2.



Replication is divided in two distinct steps that are linked to the differentiation state of the host epithelial cell:

a) The plasmid replication takes place in the basal squamous epithelial cells. It corresponds to viral DNA replication in synchrony with the host cell chromosome in order to ensures an average of one viral genome per basal cell.

  1. Attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors mediates endocytosis into vesicles in the basal squamous epithelial cell.
  2. Transport to the nucleus and uncoating of the viral DNA.
  3. Early-region transcription and translation of the early proteins.
  4. Steady-state viral DNA nuclear replication. Requires the origin of DNA replication in cis and the viral E1 and E2 proteins in trans.

b) The vegetative replication, which occurs in differentiated keratinocytes. In these cells, which no longer undergo cellular DNA synthesis, there is a burst of viral DNA synthesis with active production of virions.

  1. Vegetative viral DNA synthesis.
  2. Transcription of the late region.
  3. Capsid proteins L1 and L2 synthesis.
  4. Nuclear capsid assembly and release of viruses.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

(all links/actions below point to uniprot.org website)

7 entries grouped by strain

7 entries

Bovine papillomavirus type 5 reference strain

VE1_BPV5 Replication protein E1 (EC (ATP-dependent helicase E1)
VL2_BPV5 Minor capsid protein L2
VE2_BPV5 Regulatory protein E2
VE7_BPV5 Protein E7
VE6_BPV5 Protein E6
VE8E2_BPV5 Protein E8^E2C
VL1_BPV5 Major capsid protein L1
These structures were created with the help of Colabfold by Jason Nomburg, Nathan Price and Jennifer Doudna (ModelArchive).

Cervus papillomavirus 2 taxid:1434070

Protein ModelArchive
E7 ma-jd-viral-13639
Major capsid protein L1 ma-jd-viral-67245
Minor capsid protein L2 ma-jd-viral-44915
Protein E6 ma-jd-viral-00847
Regulatory protein E2 ma-jd-viral-61104
Replication protein E1 (EC ma-jd-viral-21335