Inhibition of host adaptive immune response by virus

Unlike innate immune response, which remain essentially unchanged upon exposure to a recurrent challenge with the same stimulus, adaptive immune cells possess the ability to learn and remember. Adaptive immunity relies on the capacity of immune cells to distinguish between the body's own cells and unwanted invaders. Healthy cells present peptides from normal cellular proteins on their cell surface, and lymphocytes will not be activated in response to them. When a cell is infected by viruses or other pathogens, the foreign peptides generated are recognized by lymphocytes that are activated and destroy the infected cell.

TAT EBNA1 K3 K5 us11 us2 mK3 m06 nef U21 ORF66 ICP47 BLN2fa US6 us3 e3-k19

Viruses employ different strategies to inhibit presentation of viral-derived peptides. One way consists of the modulation of proteasome activity which generate the peptides from full-length proteins. Some viruses also directly interact with and inhibit the machinery responsible for the generation and transport of loaded MHC molecules. For instance, TAP and tapasin are common targets of viral proteins.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

94 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

3 entries

Epstein-Barr virus (strain B95-8) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain

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BNL2A_EBVB9 Protein BNLF2a
BILF1_EBVB9 G-protein coupled receptor BILF1
EBNA1_EBVB9 Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) (EBV nuclear antigen 1)

2 entries

Epstein-Barr virus (strain AG876) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain

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EBNA1_EBVA8 Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) (EBV nuclear antigen 1)
BNL2A_EBVA8 Protein BNLF2a

2 entries

Human cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

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US06_HCMVA Unique short US6 glycoprotein (Protein HXLF6) (gpUS6)
US11_HCMVA Unique short US11 glycoprotein (Protein HXLF1) (gpUS11)

2 entries

Human cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain

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US11_HCMVM Membrane glycoprotein US11
US06_HCMVM Unique short US6 glycoprotein

2 entries

Vaccinia virus (strain Western Reserve) (VACV) (Vaccinia virus (strain WR)) reference strain

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A35_VACCW Protein A35
169_VACCW Protein 169

1 entry

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (strain A51908) (BRS) reference strain

NS1_BRSVA Non-structural protein 1 (Non-structural protein 1C)

1 entry

Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain

P12I_HTL1C Accessory protein p12I

1 entry

Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan ATK-1 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain

P12I_HTL1A Accessory protein p12I

1 entry

Human adenovirus C serotype 2 (HAdV-2) (Human adenovirus 2) reference strain

E3GL_ADE02 Early E3 18.5 kDa glycoprotein (E3-19K) (E3gp 19 kDa) (E19) (GP19K)

1 entry

Human adenovirus C serotype 5 (HAdV-5) (Human adenovirus 5) reference strain

E3GL_ADE05 Early E3 18.5 kDa glycoprotein (E3-19K) (E3gp 19 kDa) (E19) (GP19K)

1 entry

Human herpesvirus 1 (strain 17) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1) reference strain

ICP47_HHV11 ICP47 protein (Immediate-early protein IE12) (Immediate-early-5) (Infected cell protein 47) (US12 ...

1 entry

Human herpesvirus 2 (strain HG52) (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2) reference strain

ICP47_HHV2H ICP47 protein (Immediate-early protein IE12) (Immediate-early-5) (Infected cell protein 47) (US12 ...

1 entry

Human herpesvirus 8 type P (isolate GK18) (HHV-8) (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) reference strain

VIRF3_HHV8P Viral IRF3-like protein (VIRF-3)

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype A (isolate MAL) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV1MA Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate ARV2/SF2) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV1A2 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BH10) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV1B1 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BRU/LAI) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV1BR Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB2) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV1H2 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate RF/HAT3) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV1RH Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate YU-2) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV1Y2 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (strain 89.6) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV1B9 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype C (isolate 92BR025) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV192 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype C (isolate ETH2220) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV1ET Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype D (isolate ELI) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV1EL Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F1 (isolate 93BR020) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV193 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype H (isolate 90CF056) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV190 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group N (isolate YBF106) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV1YB Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group N (isolate YBF30) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV1YF Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate ANT70) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV1AN Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate MVP5180) (HIV-1) reference strain

NEF_HV1MV Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human papillomavirus type 16 reference strain

VE5_HPV16 Probable protein E5

1 entry

Human respiratory syncytial virus A (strain A2) reference strain

NS1_HRSVA Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) (Non-structural protein 1C)

1 entry

Human respiratory syncytial virus B (strain B1) reference strain

NS1_HRSVB Non-structural protein 1 (Non-structural protein 1C)

1 entry

Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) (Murine gammaherpesvirus 68) reference strain

MIR1_MHV68 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MIR1 (EC 2.3.2.36) (MK3) (Modulator of immune recognition 1 homolog) ...

1 entry

Myxoma virus (strain Lausanne) (MYXV) reference strain

LAP_MYXVL E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase LAP (EC 2.3.2.27) (Leukemia associated protein) (LAP) (RING-type E3 ...

1 entry

Rabbit fibroma virus (strain Kasza) (RFV) (Shope fibroma virus (strain Kasza)) reference strain

LAP_RFVKA E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase LAP (EC 2.3.2.27) (Leukemia associated protein) (LAP) (RING-type E3 ...

1 entry

Simian immunodeficiency virus (isolate CPZ GAB1) (SIV-cpz) (Chimpanzee immunodeficiency virus) reference strain

NEF_SIVCZ Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Simian immunodeficiency virus (isolate EK505) (SIV-cpz) (Chimpanzee immunodeficiency virus) reference strain

NEF_SIVEK Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Simian immunodeficiency virus (isolate MB66) (SIV-cpz) (Chimpanzee immunodeficiency virus) reference strain

NEF_SIVMB Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Varicella-zoster virus (strain Dumas) (HHV-3) (Human herpesvirus 3) reference strain

US03_VZVD Serine/threonine-protein kinase US3 homolog (Protein kinase ORF66) (EC 2.7.11.1)

1 entry

Yaba monkey tumor virus (strain VR587) (YMTV) reference strain

LAP_YMTV5 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase LAP (EC 2.3.2.27) (Leukemia associated protein) (LAP) (RING-type E3 ...

1 entry

Yaba-like disease virus (YLDV) reference strain

LAP_YLDV E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase LAP (EC 2.3.2.27) (Leukemia associated protein) (LAP) (RING-type E3 ...

2 entries

Epstein-Barr virus (strain GD1) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4)

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BNL2A_EBVG Protein BNLF2a
EBNA1_EBVG Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) (EBV nuclear antigen 1)

1 entry

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (strain E2490) (CeHV-1) (Simian herpes B virus)

ICP47_CHV1E ICP47 protein (Immediate-early protein IE12) (Immediate-early-5) (Infected cell protein 47) (US12 ...

1 entry

Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16 (CeHV-16) (Herpesvirus papio 2)

ICP47_CHV16 ICP47 protein (Immediate-early protein IE12) (Immediate-early-5) (Infected cell protein 47) (US12 ...

1 entry

Friend murine leukemia virus (isolate 57) (FrMLV)

ENV_MLVF5 Envelope glycoprotein (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 70) ...

1 entry

Friend murine leukemia virus (isolate FB29) (FrMLV)

ENV_MLVFF Envelope glycoprotein (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 70) ...

1 entry

Friend murine leukemia virus (isolate PVC-211) (FrMLV)

ENV_MLVFP Envelope glycoprotein (Env polyprotein) [Cleaved into: Surface protein (SU) (Glycoprotein 70) ...

1 entry

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (strain SA8) (Simian agent 8)

ICP47_HSV2S ICP47 protein (Immediate-early protein IE12) (Immediate-early-5) (Infected cell protein 47) (US12 ...

1 entry

Human adenovirus B serotype 11 (strain BC34) (HAdV-11) (Human adenovirus 11A (strain BC34))

E3GL_ADE1A Early E3 18.5 kDa glycoprotein (E3-19K) (E3gp 19 kDa) (E19) (GP19K)

1 entry

Human adenovirus B serotype 11 (strain Slobiski) (HAdV-11) (Human adenovirus 11P (strain Slobiski))

E3GL_ADE1P Early E3 18.5 kDa glycoprotein (E3-19K) (E3gp 19 kDa) (E19) (GP19K)

1 entry

Human adenovirus B serotype 3 (HAdV-3) (Human adenovirus 3)

E3GL_ADE03 Early E3 18.5 kDa glycoprotein (E3-19K) (E3gp 19 kDa) (E19) (Early E3 19.2 kDa glycoprotein) (GP19K)

1 entry

Human adenovirus B serotype 35 (HAdV-35) (Human adenovirus 35)

E3GL_ADE35 Early E3 18.5 kDa glycoprotein (E3-19K) (E3gp 19 kDa) (E19) (GP19K)

1 entry

Human adenovirus C serotype 6 (HAdV-6) (Human adenovirus 6)

E3GL_ADE06 Early E3 18.5 kDa glycoprotein (E3-19K) (E3gp 19 kDa) (E19) (GP19K)

1 entry

Human cytomegalovirus (strain Towne) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5)

US06_HCMVT Unique short US6 glycoprotein (HXLF6) (gpUS6)

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype A (isolate U455) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1U4 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype A (isolate Z321) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1ZH Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BH8) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1B8 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BRVA) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1BN Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB3) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1H3 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate JRCSF) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1JR Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate LW123) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1LW Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate MN) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1MN Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate OYI) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1OY Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate PCV12) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV112 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate SC) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1SC Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate SF162) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1S1 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate SF33) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1S3 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype D (isolate NDK) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1ND Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype D (isolate Z6) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1Z6 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F1 (isolate VI850) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1VI Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F2 (isolate MP255) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1MP Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F2 (isolate MP257) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1M2 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype G (isolate 92NG083) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV19N Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype G (isolate SE6165) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1SE Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype H (isolate VI991) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1V9 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype J (isolate SE9173) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1S9 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype J (isolate SE9280) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV1S2 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype K (isolate 96CM-MP535) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV196 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype K (isolate 97ZR-EQTB11) (HIV-1)

NEF_HV197 Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein) [Cleaved into: C-terminal core protein]

1 entry

Human respiratory syncytial virus A (strain Long)

NS1_HRSVL Non-structural protein 1 (Non-structural protein 1C)

1 entry

Human respiratory syncytial virus A (strain S-2) (HRSV-S2)

NS1_HRSS2 Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) (Non-structural protein 1C)

1 entry

Human respiratory syncytial virus B (strain 18537)

NS1_HRSV1 Non-structural protein 1 (Non-structural protein 1C)

1 entry

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV)

LAP_LSDV E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase LAP (EC 2.3.2.27) (Leukemia associated protein) (LAP) (RING-type E3 ...

1 entry

Ovine respiratory syncytial virus (strain WSU 83-1578) (ORSV)

NS1_ORSVW Non-structural protein 1 (Non-structural protein 1C)

1 entry

Swinepox virus (strain Kasza) (SWPV)

LAP_SWPVK E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase LAP (EC 2.3.2.27) (Leukemia associated protein) (LAP) (RING-type E3 ...

1 entry

Vaccinia virus (strain Copenhagen) (VACV)

A35_VACCC Protein A35