image

Antiviral drugs

There is no globally recognised antiviral drug for treatment, but many are under investigation.
Antiviral drugs are difficult to find because of the diversity and cell-parasitic nature of viruses. It has taken a long time to get effective drugs for HIV or Hepatitis C. The first drugs tested are all repurposed drugs that did not show efficacy in clinical trials.
The main targets are the specific viral enzymes: RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the two proteases.

External resource

image

image

image

ANTIVIRAL DRUGS This table displays the main drugs investigated

Class Compound Ref Status for Covid-19 Notes
Spike maturation inhibitor Camostat TMPRSS2 inhibitor that may prevent Spike cleavage and activation. Spike could still be activated by cathepsin or furin
Endosome fusion inhibitor Hydroxychloroquine No-benefit in clinical trials
Non-specific anti-malaria drug. May prevent virus entry by modifying endosomal pH.
Umifenovir/Arbidol No-benefit in clinical trials Anti influenza drug
Protease inhibitor Ritonavir , Lopinavir No-benefit in clinical trials Molecules targeting HIV protease which is a ASP protease, but SARS-Cov proteases are THIOL proteases.
Darunavir No evidence of SARS-CoV-2 inactivation
Viral polymerase inhibitor Remdesivir Weakly effective in clinical trials Molecule under investigation against MERS and SARS coronaviruses.
Favipiravir No evidence of SARS-CoV-2 inactivation Drug developed against influenza, redirected against ebola and now SARS-CoV-2