Orbivirus

VIRION

Non enveloped, icosahedral, non-turreted virion with a triple capsid structure, about 80 nm in diameter. The intermediate capsid has a T=13 icosahedral symmetry, the inner capsid a T=2* icosahedral symmetry.

Virion maturation schemes
Virion structure at ViperDB!

GENOME

Segmented linear dsRNA genome. Contains 10 segments coding for 12 proteins. Segments size range from 822 to 3,954 bp (BTV). Genome total size is 19,200 bp (BTV).

GENE EXPRESSION

The dsRNA genome is never completely uncoated, to prevent activation of antiviral state by the cell in response to dsRNA. The viral polymerase VP1 synthesizes a capped mRNA from each dsRNA segment. This capped mRNA is translocated to the cell cytoplasm where it is translated. VP6(a), NS3(a) and NS4 are presumably expressed by leaky scanning

REPLICATION

CYTOPLASMIC

  1. Attachement to host receptors mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis of virus into host cell.
  2. Particles are partially uncoated in endolysosomes, but not entirely, and penetrate in the cytoplasm.
  3. Early transcription of the dsRNA genome by viral polymerase occurs inside this sub-viral particle (naked core), so that dsRNA is never exposed to the cytoplasm.
  4. Full-length plus-strand transcripts from each of the dsRNA segments are synthesized. These plus-strand transcripts are used as templates for translation.
  5. Viral proteins and genomic RNAs aggregates in cytoplasmic viral factories.
  6. (+)RNAs are encapsidated in a sub-viral particle, in which they are transcribed to give RNA (-) molecules with which they become base-paired to produce dsRNA genomes.
  7. The capsid is assembled on the sub-viral particle.
  8. Mature virions are released presumably following cell death and associated breakdown of host plasma membrane.

Host-virus interaction

Apoptosis modulation

Bluetongue virus mediates host cell apoptosis via caspases activaton (caspases-8, caspases-9, caspase-3, and caspase-7) .

Innate immune response inhibition

Bluetongue virus NS4 protein might also be involved in counteracting the antiviral response of the host .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

101 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 11 complete proteome entries)

1 entry

Protein NS4

NS4_BTVBZ
Bluetongue virus 13 (isolate 13B89Z) (BTV 13)

2 entries

RNA-directed RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.48) (VP1)

Select_allDeselect_all
RDRP_BTV10
Bluetongue virus 10 (isolate USA) (BTV 10) reference strain
RDRP_AHSV9
African horse sickness virus 9 (AHSV-9)

12 entries

Non-structural protein NS1

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VNS1_BTV10
Bluetongue virus 10 (isolate USA) (BTV 10) reference strain
VNS1_AHSV4
African horse sickness virus 4 (AHSV-4)

Non-structural protein NS1 (Hydrophobic tubular protein)

VNS1_AHSV6
African horse sickness virus 6 (AHSV-6)
VNS1_AHSV9
African horse sickness virus 9 (AHSV-9)
VNS1_BTV11
Bluetongue virus 11 (isolate USA) (BTV 11)
VNS1_BTV13
Bluetongue virus 13 (isolate USA) (BTV 13)
VNS1_BTV17
Bluetongue virus 17 (isolate USA) (BTV 17)
VNS1_BTV1A
Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate Australia) (BTV 1)
VNS1_BTV1S
Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate South Africa) (BTV 1)
VNS1_BTV20
Bluetongue virus 20 (isolate Australia) (BTV 20)
VNS1_BTV2A
Bluetongue virus 2 (isolate USA) (BTV 2)
VNS1_EHDV2
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (strain Alberta) (EHDV-2)

Non-structural protein NS1 (Hydrophobic tubular protein)

6 entries

Non-structural protein NS2

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VNS2_BTV10
Bluetongue virus 10 (isolate USA) (BTV 10) reference strain
VNS2_AHSV9
African horse sickness virus 9 (AHSV-9)
VNS2_BTV17
Bluetongue virus 17 (isolate USA) (BTV 17)
VNS2_BTV1S
Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate South Africa) (BTV 1)
VNS2_BTV1X
Bluetongue virus 10 (BTV 10)
VNS2_EHDV2
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (strain Alberta) (EHDV-2)

10 entries

Non-structural protein NS3

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VNS3_AHSV1
African horse sickness virus 1 (AHSV-1)
VNS3_AHSV2
African horse sickness virus 2 (AHSV-2)
VNS3_AHSV3
African horse sickness virus 3 (AHSV-3)
VNS3_AHSV4
African horse sickness virus 4 (AHSV-4)
VNS3_AHSV5
African horse sickness virus 5 (AHSV-5)
VNS3_AHSV6
African horse sickness virus 6 (AHSV-6)
VNS3_AHSV7
African horse sickness virus 7 (AHSV-7)
VNS3_AHSV8
African horse sickness virus 8 (AHSV-8)
VNS3_AHSV9
African horse sickness virus 9 (AHSV-9)
VNS3_BRD
Broadhaven virus (BRD)

13 entries

Outer capsid protein VP2

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VP2_BTV10
Bluetongue virus 10 (isolate USA) (BTV 10) reference strain
VP2_AHSV3
African horse sickness virus 3 (AHSV-3)
VP2_AHSV4
African horse sickness virus 4 (AHSV-4)
VP2_AHSV6
African horse sickness virus 6 (AHSV-6)
VP2_BRD
Broadhaven virus (BRD)

Structural core protein VP2

VP2_BTV11
Bluetongue virus 11 (isolate USA) (BTV 11)
VP2_BTV13
Bluetongue virus 13 (isolate USA) (BTV 13)
VP2_BTV17
Bluetongue virus 17 (isolate USA) (BTV 17)
VP2_BTV1A
Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate Australia) (BTV 1)
VP2_BTV1S
Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate South Africa) (BTV 1)
VP2_BTV1V
Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate South Africa vaccine) (BTV 1)
VP2_BTV3V
Bluetongue virus 3 (isolate South Africa vaccine) (BTV 3)
VP2_EHDV1
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus 1 (EHDV-1)

11 entries

Core protein VP3 (Major inner capsid protein)

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VP3_BTV10
Bluetongue virus 10 (isolate USA) (BTV 10) reference strain
VP3_AHSV4
African horse sickness virus 4 (AHSV-4)

Core protein VP3

VP3_AHSV6
African horse sickness virus 6 (AHSV-6)

Core protein VP3

VP3_BTV11
Bluetongue virus 11 (isolate USA) (BTV 11)
VP3_BTV13
Bluetongue virus 13 (isolate USA) (BTV 13)
VP3_BTV17
Bluetongue virus 17 (isolate USA) (BTV 17)
VP3_BTV1A
Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate Australia) (BTV 1)
VP3_BTV1S
Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate South Africa) (BTV 1)
VP3_BTV2A
Bluetongue virus 2 (isolate USA) (BTV 2)
VP3_EHDV1
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus 1 (EHDV-1)

Core protein VP3

VP3_EHDVA
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (strain Australia) (EHDV-2)

Core protein VP3

5 entries

Core protein VP4

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VP4_BTV10
Bluetongue virus 10 (isolate USA) (BTV 10) reference strain
VP4_AHSV4
African horse sickness virus 4 (AHSV-4)

Core protein VP4 (Inner capsid protein VP4)

VP4_BTV11
Bluetongue virus 11 (isolate USA) (BTV 11)
VP4_BTV13
Bluetongue virus 13 (isolate USA) (BTV 13)
VP4_BTV2A
Bluetongue virus 2 (isolate USA) (BTV 2)

12 entries

Outer capsid protein VP5

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VP5_BTV10
Bluetongue virus 10 (isolate USA) (BTV 10) reference strain
VP5_AHSV4
African horse sickness virus 4 (AHSV-4)
VP5_AHSV6
African horse sickness virus 6 (AHSV-6)
VP5_AHSV9
African horse sickness virus 9 (AHSV-9)
VP5_BRD
Broadhaven virus (BRD)
VP5_BTV11
Bluetongue virus 11 (isolate USA) (BTV 11)
VP5_BTV13
Bluetongue virus 13 (isolate USA) (BTV 13)
VP5_BTV17
Bluetongue virus 17 (isolate USA) (BTV 17)
VP5_BTV1A
Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate Australia) (BTV 1)
VP5_BTV1S
Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate South Africa) (BTV 1)
VP5_BTV2A
Bluetongue virus 2 (isolate USA) (BTV 2)
VP5_EHDV1
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus 1 (EHDV-1)

8 entries

Protein VP6 (Minor inner core protein VP6)

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VP6_AHSV3
African horse sickness virus 3 (AHSV-3)
VP6_AHSV6
African horse sickness virus 6 (AHSV-6)
VP6_BTV11
Bluetongue virus 11 (isolate USA) (BTV 11)
VP6_BTV13
Bluetongue virus 13 (isolate USA) (BTV 13)
VP6_BTV17
Bluetongue virus 17 (isolate USA) (BTV 17)
VP6_BTV1S
Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate South Africa) (BTV 1)
VP6_BTV2A
Bluetongue virus 2 (isolate USA) (BTV 2)
VP6_BTVBZ
Bluetongue virus 13 (isolate 13B89Z) (BTV 13)

1 entry

Protein VP6-A (Minor inner core protein VP6-A)

VP6A_BTV10
Bluetongue virus 10 (isolate USA) (BTV 10) reference strain

1 entry

Protein VP6-B (Minor inner core protein VP6-B)

VP6B_BTV10
Bluetongue virus 10 (isolate USA) (BTV 10) reference strain

12 entries

Core protein VP7

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VP7_BTV10
Bluetongue virus 10 (isolate USA) (BTV 10) reference strain
VP7_AHSV4
African horse sickness virus 4 (AHSV-4)

Core protein VP7 (Capsid protein VP7) (VP7 antigen)

VP7_AHSV6
African horse sickness virus 6 (AHSV-6)

Core protein VP7 (Capsid protein VP7) (VP7 antigen)

VP7_AHSV9
African horse sickness virus 9 (AHSV-9)

Core protein VP7 (Capsid protein VP7) (VP7 antigen)

VP7_BRD
Broadhaven virus (BRD)
VP7_BTV11
Bluetongue virus 11 (isolate USA) (BTV 11)
VP7_BTV13
Bluetongue virus 13 (isolate USA) (BTV 13)
VP7_BTV17
Bluetongue virus 17 (isolate USA) (BTV 17)
VP7_BTV1A
Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate Australia) (BTV 1)
VP7_BTV1S
Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate South Africa) (BTV 1)
VP7_BTV2A
Bluetongue virus 2 (isolate USA) (BTV 2)
VP7_EHDV1
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus 1 (EHDV-1)

7 entries

Non-structural protein P8 (Non-structural protein NS3)

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VP8_BTV10
Bluetongue virus 10 (isolate USA) (BTV 10) reference strain
VP8_BTV11
Bluetongue virus 11 (isolate USA) (BTV 11)
VP8_BTV13
Bluetongue virus 13 (isolate USA) (BTV 13)
VP8_BTV17
Bluetongue virus 17 (isolate USA) (BTV 17)
VP8_BTV1A
Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate Australia) (BTV 1)
VP8_BTV1S
Bluetongue virus 1 (isolate South Africa) (BTV 1)
VP8_BTV2A
Bluetongue virus 2 (isolate USA) (BTV 2)