RNA editing


Some viruses encode genes that express multiple proteins by using overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) through a process known as RNA editing. In these viruses, the RNA polymerase reads the same template base more than once, creating insertions (0, 1, 2, etc, base insertions), leading to different mRNAs, thereby generating different types of proteins. There are two king of mRNA editing:

- By co-transcriptional editing through polymerase slippage.

- By post-transcriptional editing.


Editing of genomic template would be disastrous, therefore this happens only during transcription in negative stranded RNA viruses, or the edited genomic RNA is not a valid template for replication for deltavirus.


Note: The canonic definition of editing implies a post-transcriptional event, but in virology this term is accepted for polymerase slippage.

co-transcriptional editing, Negative stranded RNA virus

Genus Virus Major insertions Protein % Upstream sequence Position Reference
Respirovirus BPIV3 1 to 6 Gs P / V / D 33-33-33 AGGGAAUUAAAAAAGG G 707-723
Respirovirus hPIV3 1 to 6 Gs P / V / D 33-33-33 AAAGAAUUAAAAAAGG G 707-723
Henipavirus Nipah virus 1 G P / V / W 50-25-25 AGGGAAUUAAAAAAGG G 707-723
Respirovirus Sendai virus 1 G P / V / W 70-25-5 GACUCAACAAAAAAGG G 934-950
Morbilivirus Measles virus 1 G P / V / W 60-35-5 ACACCCAUUAAAAAGG G 676-692
Morbilivirus Phocine distemper virus 1 G P / V / W - GAACCCAUUAAAAAGG G 676-692
Morbilivirus Rinderpest virus 1 G P / V / W - AAACCCAUUAAAAAGG G 676-692
Morbilivirus Canine distemper virus 1 G P / V / W - GGAUCCAUUAAAAAGG G 675-691
Morbilivirus Dolphin morbillivirus 1 G P / V / W - AAAUCCAUUAAAAAGG G 676-692
Rubulavirus Simian virus 5 2 G V / P - CAUCGAUUUUAAGAGG G 474-490
Rubulavirus Mumps virus 2 G V / P - AACAGAAUUUAAGAGG G 447-463
Rubulavirus Parainfluenza virus type 4 2 G V / P CAGGAUAUUUAAGAGG G 441-457
Rubulavirus La piedad, Michoacan virus 2 G V / P - AGCAGUUUUAAAAAGG G 486-502
Rubulavirus Parainfluenza virus type 2 2 G V / P - CCCCAACUUUAAGAGG G 470-486
Ebolavirus Ebolavirus 1 A sGP / GP / ssGP - GACCCUUUGAUUUUUU U 870-886


co-transcriptional editing, Positive stranded RNA virus

Genus Virus Major insertions Protein % Upstream sequence Position Reference
Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus 1 A P3 / P3N-PIPO 98-2 CUCCAUUUUGGAAAAA A 2954
Potyvirus Plum Pox Virus 1 A P3 / P3N-PIPO 98.4-1.6 ......GUGGAAAAA A 2913
Potyvirus Sweet potato feathery mottle virus 1 A P1 / P1N-PISPO 88.2/11.8 .......AUGGAAAAA A 1389
Potyvirus Sweet potato feathery mottle virus +1 A or -1 A P3 / P3N-PIPO 98.2/1.2 or 0.6 UGAGCUUAUGGAAAAA A 3955


Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

129 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 86 complete proteome entries)

17 entries

Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)

Select_allDeselect_all
LHDAG_HDVD3
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate D380) (HDV) reference strain
LHDAG_HDV83
Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate 7/18/83) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVAM
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate American) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVIT
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Italian) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVL1
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Lebanon-1) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVM1
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese M-1) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVM2
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese M-2) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVNA
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Nauru) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVP1
Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate Peru-1) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVS1
Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate Japanese S-1) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVS2
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese S-2) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVTW
Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate TW2476) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVU2
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate US-2) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVV1
Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8624) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVV2
Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8349) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVV3
Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8375) (HDV)
LHDAG_HDVWO
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Woodchuck) (HDV)

32 entries

Phosphoprotein (Protein P)

Select_allDeselect_all
PHOSP_HENDH
Hendra virus (isolate Horse/Autralia/Hendra/1994) reference strain
PHOSP_MEASC
Measles virus (strain Ichinose-B95a) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus) reference strain
PHOSP_MUMPM
Mumps virus (strain Miyahara vaccine) (MuV) reference strain
PHOSP_NDVB1
Newcastle disease virus (strain Chicken/United States/B1/48) (NDV) reference strain
PHOSP_PI2HT
Human parainfluenza 2 virus (strain Toshiba) (HPIV-2) reference strain
PHOSP_PI3B
Bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPIV-3) reference strain
PHOSP_PIV5
Parainfluenza virus 5 (strain W3) (PIV5) (Simian virus 5) reference strain
PHOSP_SENDO
Sendai virus (strain Ohita) (SeV) reference strain
PHOSP_SENDZ
Sendai virus (strain Z) (SeV) (Sendai virus (strain HVJ)) reference strain
PHOSP_TPMV
Tupaia paramyxovirus (TPMV) reference strain
PHOSP_CDVO
Canine distemper virus (strain Onderstepoort) (CDV)
PHOSP_MEASA
Measles virus (strain Edmonston-AIK-C vaccine) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)
PHOSP_MEASE
Measles virus (strain Edmonston) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)
PHOSP_MEASI
Measles virus (strain IP-3-Ca) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)
PHOSP_MEASY
Measles virus (strain Yamagata-1) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)
PHOSP_MUMP1
Mumps virus (strain SBL-1) (MuV)
PHOSP_MUMPE
Mumps virus (strain Enders) (MuV)
PHOSP_MUMPS
Mumps virus (strain SBL) (MuV)
PHOSP_NDVU2
Newcastle disease virus (strain Ulster/2C) (NDV)
PHOSP_NIPAV
Nipah virus
PHOSP_PHODV
Phocine distemper virus (PDV)
PHOSP_PI2H
Human parainfluenza 2 virus (HPIV-2)
PHOSP_PI3H4
Human parainfluenza 3 virus (strain Wash/47885/57) (HPIV-3) (Human parainfluenza 3 virus (strain NIH 47885))
PHOSP_PI4HA
Human parainfluenza 4a virus (strain Toshiba) (HPIV-4a)
PHOSP_PI4HB
Human parainfluenza 4b virus (strain 68-333) (HPIV-4b)
PHOSP_RINDK
Rinderpest virus (strain Kabete O) (RDV)
PHOSP_RINDR
Rinderpest virus (strain RBOK) (RDV)
PHOSP_SEND6
Sendai virus (strain 6/94) (SeV)
PHOSP_SENDA
Sendai virus (strain Hamamatsu) (SeV)
PHOSP_SENDF
Sendai virus (strain Fushimi) (SeV)
PHOSP_SENDH
Sendai virus (strain Harris) (SeV)
PHOSP_SV41
Simian virus 41 (SV41)

17 entries

Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

Select_allDeselect_all
SHDAG_HDVD3
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate D380) (HDV) reference strain
SHDAG_HDV83
Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate 7/18/83) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVAM
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate American) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVIT
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Italian) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVL1
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Lebanon-1) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVM1
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese M-1) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVM2
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese M-2) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVNA
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Nauru) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVP1
Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate Peru-1) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVS1
Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate Japanese S-1) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVS2
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese S-2) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVTW
Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate TW2476) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVU2
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate US-2) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVV1
Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8624) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVV2
Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8349) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVV3
Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8375) (HDV)
SHDAG_HDVWO
Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Woodchuck) (HDV)

28 entries

Non-structural protein V

Select_allDeselect_all
V_HENDH
Hendra virus (isolate Horse/Autralia/Hendra/1994) reference strain
V_MEASC
Measles virus (strain Ichinose-B95a) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus) reference strain
V_MUMPM
Mumps virus (strain Miyahara vaccine) (MuV) reference strain

Non-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

V_NDVB1
Newcastle disease virus (strain Chicken/United States/B1/48) (NDV) reference strain

Protein V

V_PI2HT
Human parainfluenza 2 virus (strain Toshiba) (HPIV-2) reference strain
V_PIV5
Parainfluenza virus 5 (strain W3) (PIV5) (Simian virus 5) reference strain
V_SENDO
Sendai virus (strain Ohita) (SeV) reference strain

Protein V

V_SENDZ
Sendai virus (strain Z) (SeV) (Sendai virus (strain HVJ)) reference strain

Protein V

V_SV41
Simian virus 41 (SV41) reference strain
V_TPMV
Tupaia paramyxovirus (TPMV) reference strain
V_MEASA
Measles virus (strain Edmonston-AIK-C vaccine) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)
V_MEASE
Measles virus (strain Edmonston) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)
V_MEASI
Measles virus (strain IP-3-Ca) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)
V_MEASY
Measles virus (strain Yamagata-1) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)
V_MUMP1
Mumps virus (strain SBL-1) (MuV)

Non-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

V_MUMPE
Mumps virus (strain Enders) (MuV)

Non-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

V_MUMPS
Mumps virus (strain SBL) (MuV)

Non-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

V_NDVU2
Newcastle disease virus (strain Ulster/2C) (NDV)
V_NIPAV
Nipah virus
V_PHODV
Phocine distemper virus (PDV)
V_PI2H
Human parainfluenza 2 virus (HPIV-2)
V_PI4HA
Human parainfluenza 4a virus (strain Toshiba) (HPIV-4a)
V_PI4HB
Human parainfluenza 4b virus (strain 68-333) (HPIV-4b)
V_RINDK
Rinderpest virus (strain Kabete O) (RDV)
V_RINDR
Rinderpest virus (strain RBOK) (RDV)
V_SENDA
Sendai virus (strain Hamamatsu) (SeV)

Protein V

V_SENDF
Sendai virus (strain Fushimi) (SeV)

Protein V

V_SENDH
Sendai virus (strain Harris) (SeV)

Protein V

11 entries

Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)

Select_allDeselect_all
VGP_EBOZM
Zaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain
VGP_EBOEC
Zaire ebolavirus (strain Eckron-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VGP_EBOG4
Zaire ebolavirus (strain Gabon-94) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VGP_EBORE
Reston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VGP_EBORR
Reston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VGP_EBORS
Reston ebolavirus (strain Siena/Philippine-92) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VGP_EBOSB
Sudan ebolavirus (strain Boniface-76) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VGP_EBOSM
Sudan ebolavirus (strain Maleo-79) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VGP_EBOSU
Sudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VGP_EBOZ5
Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VGP_TAFVC
Tai Forest ebolavirus (strain Cote d'Ivoire-94) (TAFV) (Cote d'Ivoire Ebola virus)

11 entries

Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)

Select_allDeselect_all
VSGP_EBOZM
Zaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain
VSGP_EBOEC
Zaire ebolavirus (strain Eckron-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBOG4
Zaire ebolavirus (strain Gabon-94) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBORE
Reston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBORR
Reston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBORS
Reston ebolavirus (strain Siena/Philippine-92) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBOSB
Sudan ebolavirus (strain Boniface-76) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBOSM
Sudan ebolavirus (strain Maleo-79) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBOSU
Sudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBOZ5
Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VSGP_TAFVC
Tai Forest ebolavirus (strain Cote d'Ivoire-94) (TAFV) (Cote d'Ivoire Ebola virus)

5 entries

Super small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)

Select_allDeselect_all
VSSGP_EBOZM
Zaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain
VSSGP_EBORE
Reston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VSSGP_EBORR
Reston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VSSGP_EBOSU
Sudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VSSGP_EBOZ5
Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

8 entries

Protein W

Select_allDeselect_all
W_HENDH
Hendra virus (isolate Horse/Autralia/Hendra/1994) reference strain
W_NDVB1
Newcastle disease virus (strain Chicken/United States/B1/48) (NDV) reference strain
W_SENDO
Sendai virus (strain Ohita) (SeV) reference strain
W_SENDZ
Sendai virus (strain Z) (SeV) (Sendai virus (strain HVJ)) reference strain
W_NIPAV
Nipah virus
W_SENDA
Sendai virus (strain Hamamatsu) (SeV)
W_SENDF
Sendai virus (strain Fushimi) (SeV)
W_SENDH
Sendai virus (strain Harris) (SeV)