RNA editing


Some viruses encode genes that express multiple proteins by using overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) through a process known as RNA editing. In these viruses, the RNA polymerase reads the same template base more than once, creating insertions (0, 1, 2, etc, base insertions), leading to different mRNAs, thereby generating different types of proteins. There are two king of mRNA editing:

- By co-transcriptional editing through polymerase slippage.

- By post-transcriptional editing.


Editing of genomic template would be disastrous, therefore this happens only during transcription in negative stranded RNA viruses, or the edited genomic RNA is not a valid template for replication for deltavirus.


Note: The canonic definition of editing implies a post-transcriptional event, but in virology this term is accepted for polymerase slippage.

co-transcriptional editing, Negative stranded RNA virus

Genus Virus Major insertions Protein % Upstream sequence Position Reference
Respirovirus BPIV3 1 to 6 Gs P / V / D 33-33-33 AGGGAAUUAAAAAAGG G 707-723
Respirovirus hPIV3 1 to 6 Gs P / V / D 33-33-33 AAAGAAUUAAAAAAGG G 707-723
Henipavirus Nipah virus 1 G P / V / W 50-25-25 AGGGAAUUAAAAAAGG G 707-723
Respirovirus Sendai virus 1 G P / V / W 70-25-5 GACUCAACAAAAAAGG G 934-950
Morbilivirus Measles virus 1 G P / V / W 60-35-5 ACACCCAUUAAAAAGG G 676-692
Morbilivirus Phocine distemper virus 1 G P / V / W - GAACCCAUUAAAAAGG G 676-692
Morbilivirus Rinderpest virus 1 G P / V / W - AAACCCAUUAAAAAGG G 676-692
Morbilivirus Canine distemper virus 1 G P / V / W - GGAUCCAUUAAAAAGG G 675-691
Morbilivirus Dolphin morbillivirus 1 G P / V / W - AAAUCCAUUAAAAAGG G 676-692
Rubulavirus Simian virus 5 2 G V / P - CAUCGAUUUUAAGAGG G 474-490
Rubulavirus Mumps virus 2 G V / P - AACAGAAUUUAAGAGG G 447-463
Rubulavirus Parainfluenza virus type 4 2 G V / P CAGGAUAUUUAAGAGG G 441-457
Rubulavirus La piedad, Michoacan virus 2 G V / P - AGCAGUUUUAAAAAGG G 486-502
Rubulavirus Parainfluenza virus type 2 2 G V / P - CCCCAACUUUAAGAGG G 470-486
Ebolavirus Ebolavirus 1 A sGP / GP / ssGP - GACCCUUUGAUUUUUU U 870-886


co-transcriptional editing, Positive stranded RNA virus

Genus Virus Major insertions Protein % Upstream sequence Position Reference
Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus 1 A P3 / P3N-PIPO 98-2 CUCCAUUUUGGAAAAA A 2954
Potyvirus Plum Pox Virus 1 A P3 / P3N-PIPO 98.4-1.6 ......GUGGAAAAA A 2913
Potyvirus Sweet potato feathery mottle virus 1 A P1 / P1N-PISPO 88.2/11.8 .......AUGGAAAAA A 1389
Potyvirus Sweet potato feathery mottle virus +1 A or -1 A P3 / P3N-PIPO 98.2/1.2 or 0.6 UGAGCUUAUGGAAAAA A 3955


Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

129 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 86 complete proteome entries)

3 entries

Hendra virus (isolate Horse/Autralia/Hendra/1994) reference strain

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PHOSP_HENDH Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_HENDH Non-structural protein V
W_HENDH Protein W

3 entries

Newcastle disease virus (strain Chicken/United States/B1/48) (NDV) reference strain

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PHOSP_NDVB1 Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
W_NDVB1 Protein W
V_NDVB1 Protein V

3 entries

Reston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus) reference strain

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VSSGP_EBORR Super small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)
VGP_EBORR Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP) [Cleaved into: GP1; GP2; GP2-delta]
VSGP_EBORR Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP) [Cleaved into: Small/secreted glycoprotein (sGP); ...

3 entries

Sendai virus (strain Ohita) (SeV) reference strain

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PHOSP_SENDO Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_SENDO Protein V
W_SENDO Protein W

3 entries

Sendai virus (strain Z) (SeV) (Sendai virus (strain HVJ)) reference strain

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PHOSP_SENDZ Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
W_SENDZ Protein W
V_SENDZ Protein V

3 entries

Zaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain

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VGP_EBOZM Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP) [Cleaved into: GP1; GP2; GP2-delta]
VSSGP_EBOZM Super small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)
VSGP_EBOZM Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP) [Cleaved into: Small/secreted glycoprotein (sGP); ...

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate D380) (HDV) reference strain

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LHDAG_HDVD3 Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVD3 Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Human parainfluenza 2 virus (strain Toshiba) (HPIV-2) reference strain

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PHOSP_PI2HT Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_PI2HT Non-structural protein V

2 entries

Measles virus (strain Ichinose-B95a) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus) reference strain

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PHOSP_MEASC Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MEASC Non-structural protein V

2 entries

Mumps virus (strain Miyahara vaccine) (MuV) reference strain

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PHOSP_MUMPM Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MUMPM Non-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

2 entries

Parainfluenza virus 5 (strain W3) (PIV5) (Simian virus 5) reference strain

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PHOSP_PIV5 Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_PIV5 Non-structural protein V

1 entry

Simian virus 41 (SV41) reference strain

V_SV41 Non-structural protein V

2 entries

Tupaia paramyxovirus (TPMV) reference strain

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PHOSP_TPMV Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_TPMV Non-structural protein V

1 entry

Bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPIV-3) reference strain

PHOSP_PI3B Phosphoprotein (Protein P)

3 entries

Nipah virus

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PHOSP_NIPAV Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_NIPAV Non-structural protein V
W_NIPAV Protein W

3 entries

Reston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBORE Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP) [Cleaved into: GP1; GP2; GP2-delta]
VSSGP_EBORE Super small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)
VSGP_EBORE Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP) [Cleaved into: Small/secreted glycoprotein (sGP); ...

3 entries

Sendai virus (strain Fushimi) (SeV)

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PHOSP_SENDF Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
W_SENDF Protein W
V_SENDF Protein V

3 entries

Sendai virus (strain Hamamatsu) (SeV)

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PHOSP_SENDA Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
W_SENDA Protein W
V_SENDA Protein V

3 entries

Sendai virus (strain Harris) (SeV)

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PHOSP_SENDH Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
W_SENDH Protein W
V_SENDH Protein V

3 entries

Sudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)

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VSSGP_EBOSU Super small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)
VGP_EBOSU Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP) [Cleaved into: GP1; GP2; GP2-delta]
VSGP_EBOSU Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP) [Cleaved into: Small/secreted glycoprotein (sGP); ...

3 entries

Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

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VSSGP_EBOZ5 Super small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)
VGP_EBOZ5 Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP) [Cleaved into: GP1; GP2; GP2-delta]
VSGP_EBOZ5 Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP) [Cleaved into: Small/secreted glycoprotein (sGP); ...

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate American) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVAM Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVAM Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Italian) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVIT Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVIT Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese M-1) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVM1 Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVM1 Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese M-2) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVM2 Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVM2 Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Japanese S-2) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVS2 Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVS2 Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Lebanon-1) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVL1 Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVL1 Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Nauru) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVNA Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVNA Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate US-2) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVU2 Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVU2 Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype I (isolate Woodchuck) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVWO Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVWO Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate 7/18/83) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDV83 Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDV83 Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate Japanese S-1) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVS1 Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVS1 Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype II (isolate TW2476) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVTW Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVTW Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate Peru-1) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVP1 Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVP1 Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8349) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVV2 Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVV2 Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8375) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVV3 Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVV3 Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Hepatitis delta virus genotype III (isolate VnzD8624) (HDV)

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LHDAG_HDVV1 Large delta antigen (L-HDAg) (p27)
SHDAG_HDVV1 Small delta antigen (S-HDAg) (p24)

2 entries

Human parainfluenza 2 virus (HPIV-2)

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PHOSP_PI2H Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_PI2H Non-structural protein V

2 entries

Human parainfluenza 4a virus (strain Toshiba) (HPIV-4a)

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PHOSP_PI4HA Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_PI4HA Non-structural protein V

2 entries

Human parainfluenza 4b virus (strain 68-333) (HPIV-4b)

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PHOSP_PI4HB Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_PI4HB Non-structural protein V

2 entries

Measles virus (strain Edmonston) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)

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PHOSP_MEASE Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MEASE Non-structural protein V

2 entries

Measles virus (strain Edmonston-AIK-C vaccine) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)

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PHOSP_MEASA Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MEASA Non-structural protein V

2 entries

Measles virus (strain IP-3-Ca) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)

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PHOSP_MEASI Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MEASI Non-structural protein V

2 entries

Measles virus (strain Yamagata-1) (MeV) (Subacute sclerose panencephalitis virus)

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PHOSP_MEASY Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MEASY Non-structural protein V

2 entries

Mumps virus (strain Enders) (MuV)

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PHOSP_MUMPE Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MUMPE Non-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

2 entries

Mumps virus (strain SBL) (MuV)

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PHOSP_MUMPS Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MUMPS Non-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

2 entries

Mumps virus (strain SBL-1) (MuV)

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PHOSP_MUMP1 Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_MUMP1 Non-structural protein V (Non-structural protein NS1)

2 entries

Newcastle disease virus (strain Ulster/2C) (NDV)

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PHOSP_NDVU2 Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_NDVU2 Non-structural protein V

2 entries

Phocine distemper virus (PDV)

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PHOSP_PHODV Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_PHODV Non-structural protein V

2 entries

Reston ebolavirus (strain Siena/Philippine-92) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)

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VSGP_EBORS Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP) [Cleaved into: Small/secreted glycoprotein (sGP); ...
VGP_EBORS Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP) [Cleaved into: GP1; GP2; GP2-delta]

2 entries

Rinderpest virus (strain Kabete O) (RDV)

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PHOSP_RINDK Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_RINDK Non-structural protein V

2 entries

Rinderpest virus (strain RBOK) (RDV)

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PHOSP_RINDR Phosphoprotein (Protein P)
V_RINDR Non-structural protein V

1 entry

Simian virus 41 (SV41)

PHOSP_SV41 Phosphoprotein (Protein P)

2 entries

Sudan ebolavirus (strain Boniface-76) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBOSB Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP) [Cleaved into: GP1; GP2; GP2-delta]
VSGP_EBOSB Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP) [Cleaved into: Small/secreted glycoprotein (sGP); ...

2 entries

Sudan ebolavirus (strain Maleo-79) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBOSM Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP) [Cleaved into: GP1; GP2; GP2-delta]
VSGP_EBOSM Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP) [Cleaved into: Small/secreted glycoprotein (sGP); ...

2 entries

Tai Forest ebolavirus (strain Cote d'Ivoire-94) (TAFV) (Cote d'Ivoire Ebola virus)

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VSGP_TAFVC Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP) [Cleaved into: Small/secreted glycoprotein (sGP); ...
VGP_TAFVC Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP) [Cleaved into: GP1; GP2; GP2-delta]

2 entries

Zaire ebolavirus (strain Eckron-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBOEC Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP) [Cleaved into: GP1; GP2; GP2-delta]
VSGP_EBOEC Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP) [Cleaved into: Small/secreted glycoprotein (sGP); ...

2 entries

Zaire ebolavirus (strain Gabon-94) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

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VGP_EBOG4 Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP) [Cleaved into: GP1; GP2; GP2-delta]
VSGP_EBOG4 Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP) [Cleaved into: Small/secreted glycoprotein (sGP); ...

1 entry

Canine distemper virus (strain Onderstepoort) (CDV)

PHOSP_CDVO Phosphoprotein (Protein P)

1 entry

Human parainfluenza 3 virus (strain Wash/47885/57) (HPIV-3) (Human parainfluenza 3 virus (strain NIH 47885))

PHOSP_PI3H4 Phosphoprotein (Protein P)

1 entry

Sendai virus (strain 6/94) (SeV)

PHOSP_SEND6 Phosphoprotein (Protein P)