Molecular biology

Filamentous 970 nm long for Ebolavirus. Diameter is about 80nm.


Negative-stranded RNA linear genome, about 18-19 kb in size. Encodes for seven proteins.


The viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase binds the encapsidated genome at the leader region, then sequentially transcribes each genes by recognizing start and stop signals flanking viral genes. mRNAs are capped and polyadenylated by the L protein during synthesis.
The primary product of the unedited transcript of GP gene yields a smaller non-structural glycoprotein sGP which is efficiently secreted from infected cells. RNA editing allows expression of full-length GP.



  1. Attachment to host receptors through GP glycoprotein like DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR
  2. Cellular receptor like HAVCR1(TIM1) binds phosphatidyl serine on virion membrane and a signal is transduced into the cell that trigger the macropinocytosis program by apoptotic mimicry.
  3. The virion enters the cell by Macropinocytosis. In some culture cells, GP glycoprotein can be processed by host Cathepsin L and Cathepsin B into 19kDa GP1. But this processing is not happening in all cells or for all ebolavirus.
  4. GP1 interacts with host NPC1, in late macropinosome and promotes Fusion of virus membrane with the vesicle membrane. The ribonucleocapsid is then released into the cytoplasm.
  5. Sequential transcription, viral mRNAs are capped and polyadenylated by polymerase stuttering in the cytoplasm.
  6. Replication presumably starts when enough nucleoprotein is present to encapsidate neo-synthetized antigenomes and genomes.
  7. The ribonucleocapsid interacts with the matrix protein, and buds via the host ESCRT complexes from the plasma membrane, releasing the virion .

Host-virus interaction

Inhibition of host Interferon induction

Vp35 protein prevents host interferon induction by Inhibition of host IKBKE by virus

Inhibition of host interferon signaling

Vp24 protein block interferon signaling by preventing STAT1 signaling. May act by binding host karyopherin ? proteins, thereby preventing them from transporting the tyrosine-phosphorylated transcription factor STAT1 to the nucleus. May directly bind to STAT1 to prevent its signaling .

Antigenic subvertion

Small Glycoprotein (sGP) is a secreted truncated version of GP that prevent host antibodies anti-GP to effectively neutralize it .

Inhibition of acquired immune response

Ebolavirus may encode for a superantigen, thereby inhibiting Vbeta t cells

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

62 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 45 complete proteome entries)

RNA-directed RNA polymerase L (Protein L) (Large structural protein) (Replicase) (Transcriptase)

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L_EBOZMZaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain
L_EBOREReston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
L_EBORRReston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
L_EBOSMSudan ebolavirus (strain Maleo-79) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
L_EBOSUSudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
L_EBOZ5Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

Nucleoprotein (Nucleocapsid protein) (Protein N)

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NCAP_EBOZMZaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain
NCAP_EBOREReston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
NCAP_EBORRReston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
NCAP_EBOSBSudan ebolavirus (strain Boniface-76) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
NCAP_EBOSUSudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
NCAP_EBOG4Zaire ebolavirus (strain Gabon-94) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
NCAP_EBOZ5Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

Envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) (GP)

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VGP_EBOZMZaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain
VGP_EBOREReston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VGP_EBORRReston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VGP_EBORSReston ebolavirus (strain Siena/Philippine-92) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VGP_EBOSBSudan ebolavirus (strain Boniface-76) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VGP_EBOSMSudan ebolavirus (strain Maleo-79) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VGP_EBOSUSudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VGP_TAFVCTai Forest ebolavirus (strain Cote d'Ivoire-94) (TAFV) (Cote d'Ivoire Ebola ...
VGP_EBOECZaire ebolavirus (strain Eckron-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VGP_EBOG4Zaire ebolavirus (strain Gabon-94) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VGP_EBOZ5Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

Membrane-associated protein VP24

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VP24_EBOZMZaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain
VP24_EBOREReston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VP24_EBORRReston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VP24_EBOSUSudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VP24_EBOG4Zaire ebolavirus (strain Gabon-94) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VP24_EBOZ5Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

Minor nucleoprotein VP30 (Transcription activator VP30)

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VP30_EBOZMZaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain
VP30_EBOREReston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VP30_EBORRReston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VP30_EBOSUSudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VP30_EBOZ5Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

Polymerase cofactor VP35

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VP35_EBOZMZaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain
VP35_EBOREReston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VP35_EBORRReston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VP35_EBOSUSudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VP35_EBOZ5Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

Matrix protein VP40 (Membrane-associated protein VP40)

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VP40_EBOZMZaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain
VP40_EBOREReston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VP40_EBORRReston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VP40_EBOSUSudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VP40_EBOG4Zaire ebolavirus (strain Gabon-94) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VP40_EBOZ5Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

Pre-small/secreted glycoprotein (pre-sGP)

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VSGP_EBOZMZaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain
VSGP_EBOREReston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBORRReston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBORSReston ebolavirus (strain Siena/Philippine-92) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBOSBSudan ebolavirus (strain Boniface-76) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBOSMSudan ebolavirus (strain Maleo-79) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBOSUSudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VSGP_TAFVCTai Forest ebolavirus (strain Cote d'Ivoire-94) (TAFV) (Cote d'Ivoire Ebola ...
VSGP_EBOECZaire ebolavirus (strain Eckron-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBOG4Zaire ebolavirus (strain Gabon-94) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)
VSGP_EBOZ5Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)

Super small secreted glycoprotein (SsGP)

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VSSGP_EBOZMZaire ebolavirus (strain Mayinga-76) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus) reference strain
VSSGP_EBOREReston ebolavirus (strain Philippines-96) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VSSGP_EBORRReston ebolavirus (strain Reston-89) (REBOV) (Reston Ebola virus)
VSSGP_EBOSUSudan ebolavirus (strain Uganda-00) (SEBOV) (Sudan Ebola virus)
VSSGP_EBOZ5Zaire ebolavirus (strain Kikwit-95) (ZEBOV) (Zaire Ebola virus)