Inhibition of host adaptive immune response by virus

Unlike innate immune response, which remain essentially unchanged upon exposure to a recurrent challenge with the same stimulus, adaptive immune cells possess the ability to learn and remember. Adaptive immunity relies on the capacity of immune cells to distinguish between the body’s own cells and unwanted invaders. Healthy cells present peptides from normal cellular proteins on their cell surface, and lymphocytes will not be activated in response to them. When a cell is infected by viruses or other pathogens, the foreign peptides generated are recognized by lymphocytes that are activated and destroy the infected cell.

TAT EBNA1 K3 K5 us11 us2 mK3 m06 nef U21 ORF66 ICP47 BLN2fa US6 us3 e3-k19

Viruses employ different strategies to inhibit presentation of viral-derived peptides. One way consists of the modulation of proteasome activity which generate the peptides from full-length proteins. Some viruses also directly interact with and inhibit the machinery responsible for the generation and transport of loaded MHC molecules. For instance, TAP and tapasin are common targets of viral proteins.

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

84 entries grouped by protein (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 52 complete proteome entries)

Protein 169


169_VACCWVaccinia virus (strain Western Reserve) (VACV) (Vaccinia virus (strain WR)) reference strain

Protein A35

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A35_VACCWVaccinia virus (strain Western Reserve) (VACV) (Vaccinia virus (strain WR)) reference strain
A35_VACCCVaccinia virus (strain Copenhagen) (VACV)

G-protein coupled receptor BILF1


BILF1_EBVB9Epstein-Barr virus (strain B95-8) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain

Protein BNLF2a

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BNL2A_EBVA8Epstein-Barr virus (strain AG876) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain
BNL2A_EBVB9Epstein-Barr virus (strain B95-8) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain
BNL2A_EBVGEpstein-Barr virus (strain GD1) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4)

Early E3 18.5 kDa glycoprotein (E3-19K) (E3gp 19 kDa) (E19) (GP19K)

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E3GL_ADE02Human adenovirus C serotype 2 (HAdV-2) (Human adenovirus 2) reference strain
E3GL_ADE1AHuman adenovirus B serotype 11 (strain BC34) (HAdV-11) (Human adenovirus 11A ...
E3GL_ADE1PHuman adenovirus B serotype 11 (strain Slobiski) (HAdV-11) (Human adenovirus ...
E3GL_ADE03Human adenovirus B serotype 3 (HAdV-3) (Human adenovirus 3)

Early E3 18.5 kDa glycoprotein (E3-19K) (E3gp 19 kDa) (E19) (Early E3 19.2 kDa glycoprotein) (GP19K)

E3GL_ADE35Human adenovirus B serotype 35 (HAdV-35) (Human adenovirus 35)
E3GL_ADE05Human adenovirus C serotype 5 (HAdV-5) (Human adenovirus 5)
E3GL_ADE06Human adenovirus C serotype 6 (HAdV-6) (Human adenovirus 6)

Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) (EBV nuclear antigen 1)

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EBNA1_EBVA8Epstein-Barr virus (strain AG876) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain
EBNA1_EBVB9Epstein-Barr virus (strain B95-8) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain
EBNA1_EBVGEpstein-Barr virus (strain GD1) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4)

Envelope glycoprotein (Env polyprotein)

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ENV_MLVF5Friend murine leukemia virus (isolate 57) (FrMLV)
ENV_MLVFFFriend murine leukemia virus (isolate FB29) (FrMLV)
ENV_MLVFPFriend murine leukemia virus (isolate PVC-211) (FrMLV)

ICP47 protein (Immediate-early protein IE12) (Immediate-early-5) (Infected cell protein 47) (US12 protein) (Vmw12)

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ICP47_HHV11Human herpesvirus 1 (strain 17) (HHV-1) (Human herpes simplex virus 1) reference strain
ICP47_HHV2HHuman herpesvirus 2 (strain HG52) (HHV-2) (Human herpes simplex virus 2) reference strain
ICP47_CHV1ECercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (strain E2490) (CeHV-1) (Simian herpes B virus)
ICP47_CHV16Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16 (CeHV-16) (Herpesvirus papio 2)
ICP47_HSV2SHerpes simplex virus type 2 (strain SA8) (Simian agent 8)

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase LAP (EC 2.3.2.27) (Leukemia associated protein) (LAP) (RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase LAP)

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LAP_MYXVLMyxoma virus (strain Lausanne) (MYXV) reference strain
LAP_RFVKARabbit fibroma virus (strain Kasza) (RFV) (Shope fibroma virus (strain Kasza)) reference strain
LAP_YMTV5Yaba monkey tumor virus (strain VR587) (YMTV) reference strain

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase LAP (EC 2.3.2.27) (Leukemia associated protein) (LAP) (RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase)

LAP_LSDVLumpy skin disease virus (LSDV)
LAP_SWPVKSwinepox virus (strain Kasza) (SWPV)
LAP_YLDVYaba-like disease virus (YLDV)

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MIR1 (EC 2.3.2.27) (MK3) (Modulator of immune recognition 1 homolog) (ORF K3) (RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase MIR1)


MIR1_MHV68Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) (Murine gammaherpesvirus 68)

Protein Nef (3'ORF) (Negative factor) (F-protein)

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NEF_HV1MAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype A (isolate MAL) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1A2Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate ARV2/SF2) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1BRHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BRU/LAI) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1H2Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB2) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1ANHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate ANT70) (HIV-1) reference strain
NEF_HV1U4Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype A (isolate U455) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1ZHHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype A (isolate Z321) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1B1Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BH10) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1B8Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BH8) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1BNHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BRVA) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1H3Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB3) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1JRHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate JRCSF) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1LWHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate LW123) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1MNHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate MN) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1OYHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate OYI) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV112Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate PCV12) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1RHHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate RF/HAT3) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1SCHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate SC) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1S1Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate SF162) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1S3Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate SF33) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1Y2Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate YU-2) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1B9Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (strain 89.6) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV192Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype C (isolate 92BR025) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1ETHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype C (isolate ETH2220) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1ELHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype D (isolate ELI) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1NDHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype D (isolate NDK) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1Z6Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype D (isolate Z6) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV193Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F1 (isolate 93BR020) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1VIHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F1 (isolate VI850) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1MPHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F2 (isolate MP255) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1M2Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F2 (isolate MP257) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV19NHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype G (isolate 92NG083) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1SEHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype G (isolate SE6165) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV190Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype H (isolate 90CF056) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1V9Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype H (isolate VI991) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1S9Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype J (isolate SE9173) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1S2Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype J (isolate SE9280) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV196Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype K (isolate 96CM-MP535) ...
NEF_HV197Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype K (isolate 97ZR-EQTB11) ...
NEF_HV1YBHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group N (isolate YBF106) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1YFHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group N (isolate YBF30) (HIV-1)
NEF_HV1MVHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate MVP5180) (HIV-1)

Accessory protein p12I

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P12I_HTL1CHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (isolate Caribbea HS-35 subtype A) (HTLV-1) reference strain
P12I_HTL1AHuman T-cell leukemia virus 1 (strain Japan ATK-1 subtype A) (HTLV-1)

Serine/threonine-protein kinase US3 homolog (Protein kinase ORF66) (EC 2.7.11.1)


US03_VZVDVaricella-zoster virus (strain Dumas) (HHV-3) (Human herpesvirus 3) reference strain

Unique short US6 glycoprotein

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US06_HCMVMHuman cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain
US06_HCMVAHuman cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5)

Unique short US6 glycoprotein (Protein HXLF6) (gpUS6)

US06_HCMVTHuman cytomegalovirus (strain Towne) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5)

Unique short US6 glycoprotein (HXLF6) (gpUS6)

Membrane glycoprotein US11

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US11_HCMVMHuman cytomegalovirus (strain Merlin) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5) reference strain
US11_HCMVAHuman cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) (Human herpesvirus 5)

Unique short US11 glycoprotein (Protein HXLF1) (gpUS11)

Probable protein E5


VE5_HPV16Human papillomavirus type 16 reference strain

Viral IRF3-like protein (VIRF-3)


VIRF3_HHV8PHuman herpesvirus 8 type P (isolate GK18) (HHV-8) (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated ... reference strain