Enveloped, spherical to pleomorphic, 150-200 nm in diameter, T=16 icosahedral symmetry. Capsid consists of 162 capsomers and is surrounded by an amorphous tegument. Glycoproteins complexes are embedded in the lipid envelope.


Monopartite, linear, dsDNA genome of about 180 kb. The genome contains terminal and internal reiterated sequences.


Each viral transcript usually encodes a single protein and has a promoter/regulatory sequence, a TATA box, a transcription initiation site, a 5’ leader sequence of 30-300 bp (not translated), a 3’ untranslated sequence of 10-30 bp, and a poly A signal. There are many gene overlaps. There are only few spliced genes. Some of the expressed ORFs are antisense to each other. Some ORFs can be accessed from more than one promoter. There are some non-coding genes.



Lytic replication:

  1. Attachment of the viral glycoproteins to host receptors mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell.
  2. Fusion with the plasma membrane to release the core and the tegument proteins into the host cytoplasm.
  3. The capsid is transported to the nuclear pore where the viral DNA is released into the nucleus.
  4. Transcription of immediate early genes which promote transcription of early genes and protect the virus against innate host immunity.
  5. Transcription of early viral mRNA by host polymerase II, encoding proteins involved in replication of the viral DNA.
  6. A first round of circular genome amplification occurs by bidirectional replication
  7. Synthesis of linear concatemer copies of viral DNA by rolling circle.
  8. Transcription of late mRNAs by host polymerase II, encoding structural proteins.
  9. Assembly of the virus in nuclear viral factories and budding through the inner lamella of the nuclear membrane which has been modified by the insertion of herpes glycoproteins, throughout the Golgi and final release at the plasma membrane.

Latent replication : replication of circular viral episome in tandem with the host cell DNA using the host cell replication machinery.

Host-virus interaction

Adaptive immune response inhibition

Epstein-Barr virus protein BNLF2a inhibits host adaptive immune response by interacting with TAP1 and TAP2 and thus preventing TAP-mediated peptide transport and subsequent loading. The glycine-alanine repeat domain (GAr) of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) prevents major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted presentation of EBNA1 epitopes to cytotoxic T cells.

Apoptosis modulation

Epstein-Barr viral protein BHRF1 is a viral homologue of the Bcl-2 oncogene that is able to protect cells from induced apoptosis. EBNA3C directly interacts with host Gemin3 and thereby blocks p53-mediated apoptosis .

Autophagy modulation

The viral Bcl-2 homolog BHRF1 in addition to prevent host cel death, may also control host autophagy .

Cell-cycle modulation

EBNA3C forms a complex with Cyclin D1 thereby facilitating the G1-S phase transition . Additionally, EBNA2 can affect activities of cell cycle regulators and retards cell cycle progression at G2/M phase. The conserved UL24 family of human alpha, beta and gamma herpesviruses induces a cell cycle arrest at G2/M transition through inactivation of the host cyclinB/cdc2 complex. EBV encodes an UL24 homolog termed BXRF1 that should perform this role .

Innate immune response inhibition

EBV inhibits the cascade leading to production of interferon-beta by targeting host IRF3 protein with the BGLF4 protein kinase that directly interacts with and inhibits host IRF3. BRLF1 expression also decreases induction of IFN-beta, and reduces expression of IRF3 and IRF7.

Host splicing inhibition

EBV EB2 modulates the host mRNA expression by exporting unspliced mRNA, thereby inducing alternative splicing .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

194 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 191 complete proteome entries)

79 entries

Epstein-Barr virus (strain B95-8) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain

Select_all Deselect_all  
AN_EBVB9Shutoff alkaline exonuclease (SOX) (EC 3.1.-.-)
BALF1_EBVB9Apoptosis regulator BALF1
BARF1_EBVB9Secreted protein BARF1 (33 kDa early protein) (p33)
BDLF3_EBVB9Glycoprotein BDLF3
BFRF2_EBVB9Uncharacterized protein BFRF2
BHLF1_EBVB9Uncharacterized protein BHLF1
BILF1_EBVB9G-protein coupled receptor BILF1
BILF2_EBVB9Glycoprotein BILF2
BKRF4_EBVB9Tegument protein BKRF4
BLLF2_EBVB9Uncharacterized protein BLLF2
BLRF2_EBVB9Tegument protein BLRF2
BNL2B_EBVB9Uncharacterized protein BNLF2b
BRRF1_EBVB9Transcriptional activator BRRF1
BRRF2_EBVB9Tegument protein BRRF2
BTRF1_EBVB9Uncharacterized protein BTRF1
BZLF1_EBVB9Trans-activator protein BZLF1 (EB1) (Zebra)
CEP1_EBVB9Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 1
CEP2_EBVB9Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 2
CEP3_EBVB9Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 3
CVC1_EBVB9Capsid vertex component 1
CVC2_EBVB9Capsid vertex component 2
DNBI_EBVB9Major DNA-binding protein
DPOL_EBVB9DNA polymerase catalytic subunit (EC
DUT_EBVB9Deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) (EC (dUTP ...
EAD_EBVB9DNA polymerase processivity factor BMRF1 (Early antigen protein D) (EA-D) ...
EAR_EBVB9Apoptosis regulator BHRF1 (Early antigen protein R) (EA-R) (Nuclear antigen)
EBNA1_EBVB9Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) (EBV nuclear antigen 1)
EBNA2_EBVB9Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) (EBV nuclear antigen 2)
EBNA3_EBVB9Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 3 (EBNA-3) (EBV nuclear antigen 3) (Epstein-Barr ...
EBNA4_EBVB9Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 4 (EBNA-4) (EBV nuclear antigen 4) (Epstein-Barr ...
EBNA5_EBVB9Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) (EBV nuclear antigen ...
EBNA6_EBVB9Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 6 (EBNA-6) (EBV nuclear antigen 6) (Epstein-Barr ...
GB_EBVB9Envelope glycoprotein B (gB)
GH_EBVB9Envelope glycoprotein H (gH)
GL_EBVB9Envelope glycoprotein L (gL)
GM_EBVB9Envelope glycoprotein M (gM)
GN_EBVB9Envelope glycoprotein N
GP350_EBVB9Envelope glycoprotein GP350 (Membrane antigen) (MA)
GP42_EBVB9Glycoprotein 42 (gp42)
HELI_EBVB9DNA replication helicase (EC 3.6.4.-)
ICP27_EBVB9mRNA export factor ICP27 homolog (Mta) (ORF57 protein homolog) (Protein SM)
IL10H_EBVB9Viral interleukin-10 homolog (vIL-10) (20 kDa protein) (Protein BCRF1)
ITP_EBVB9Inner tegument protein
KITH_EBVB9Thymidine kinase (EC
KR2_EBVB9Serine/threonine-protein kinase BGLF4 (EC
LF1_EBVB9Uncharacterized LF1 protein
LF2_EBVB9Protein LF2
LF3_EBVB9Uncharacterized protein LF3
LMP1_EBVB9Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) (Protein p63)
LMP2_EBVB9Latent membrane protein 2 (Terminal protein)
LTP_EBVB9Large tegument protein deneddylase (EC (EC 3.4.22.-)
MCP_EBVB9Major capsid protein (MCP)
MTP_EBVB9Major tegument protein (MTP) (Protein p140)
NEC1_EBVB9Nuclear egress protein 1
NEC2_EBVB9Nuclear egress protein 2
PORTL_EBVB9Portal protein
PRIM_EBVB9DNA primase (EC 2.7.7.-)
RIR1_EBVB9Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC ...
RIR2_EBVB9Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase small subunit (EC ...
RPMS1_EBVB9Uncharacterized protein RPMS1
RTA_EBVB9Replication and transcription activator (Rta) (Immediate-early protein Rta)
SCAF_EBVB9Capsid scaffolding protein (Capsid protein P40) (Protease precursor) (pPR) ...
SCP_EBVB9Small capsomere-interacting protein
TEG7_EBVB9Tegument protein UL51 homolog
TRM1_EBVB9Tripartite terminase subunit 1
TRM3_EBVB9Tripartite terminase subunit 3 (EC 3.1.-.-) (Terminase large subunit)
TRX1_EBVB9Triplex capsid protein 1
TRX2_EBVB9Triplex capsid protein 2
UL24_EBVB9Protein UL24 homolog
UL32_EBVB9Packaging protein UL32 homolog
UL87_EBVB9TBP-like protein BcRF1
UL92_EBVB9Uncharacterized protein BDLF4
UL95_EBVB9Protein BGLF3
UNG_EBVB9Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) (EC
YBL2_EBVB9Uncharacterized protein BBLF2
YEC4_EBVB9Uncharacterized protein EC-RF4

56 entries

Epstein-Barr virus (strain AG876) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4) reference strain

Select_all Deselect_all  
AN_EBVA8Shutoff alkaline exonuclease (SOX) (EC 3.1.-.-)
BARF1_EBVA8Secreted protein BARF1 (33 kDa early protein) (p33)
BKRF4_EBVA8Tegument protein BKRF4
BLLF2_EBVA8Uncharacterized protein BLLF2
BLRF2_EBVA8Tegument protein BLRF2
BNL2B_EBVA8Uncharacterized protein BNLF2b
BRRF1_EBVA8Transcriptional activator BRRF1
BRRF2_EBVA8Tegument protein BRRF2
BTRF1_EBVA8Uncharacterized protein BTRF1
BZLF1_EBVA8Trans-activator protein BZLF1 (EB1) (Zebra)
CEP1_EBVA8Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 1
CEP2_EBVA8Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 2
CEP3_EBVA8Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 3
CVC2_EBVA8Capsid vertex component 2
DNBI_EBVA8Major DNA-binding protein
DPOL_EBVA8DNA polymerase catalytic subunit (EC
DUT_EBVA8Deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) (EC (dUTP ...
EAD_EBVA8DNA polymerase processivity factor BMRF1 (Early antigen protein D) (EA-D) ...
EAR_EBVA8Apoptosis regulator BHRF1 (Early antigen protein R) (EA-R) (Nuclear antigen)
EBNA1_EBVA8Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) (EBV nuclear antigen 1)
EBNA2_EBVA8Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) (EBV nuclear antigen 2)
EBNA3_EBVA8Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 3 (EBNA-3) (EBV nuclear antigen 3) (Epstein-Barr ...
EBNA4_EBVA8Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 4 (EBNA-4) (EBV nuclear antigen 4) (Epstein-Barr ...
EBNA5_EBVA8Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) (EBV nuclear antigen ...
EBNA6_EBVA8Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 6 (EBNA-6) (EBV nuclear antigen 6) (Epstein-Barr ...
GB_EBVA8Envelope glycoprotein B (gB)
GH_EBVA8Envelope glycoprotein H (gH)
GL_EBVA8Envelope glycoprotein L (gL)
GM_EBVA8Envelope glycoprotein M (gM)
GN_EBVA8Envelope glycoprotein N
GP350_EBVA8Envelope glycoprotein GP350 (Membrane antigen) (MA)
GP42_EBVA8Glycoprotein 42 (gp42)
ICP27_EBVA8mRNA export factor ICP27 homolog (Mta) (ORF57 protein homolog) (Protein SM)
IL10H_EBVA8Viral interleukin-10 homolog (vIL-10) (20 kDa protein) (Protein BCRF1)
ITP_EBVA8Inner tegument protein
KITH_EBVA8Thymidine kinase (EC
KR2_EBVA8Serine/threonine-protein kinase BGLF4 (EC
LF1_EBVA8Uncharacterized LF1 protein
LF2_EBVA8Protein LF2
LMP1_EBVA8Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) (Protein p63)
LMP2_EBVA8Latent membrane protein 2 (Terminal protein)
LTP_EBVA8Large tegument protein deneddylase (EC (EC 3.4.22.-)
MCP_EBVA8Major capsid protein (MCP)
MTP_EBVA8Major tegument protein (MTP) (Protein p140)
NEC1_EBVA8Nuclear egress protein 1
PORTL_EBVA8Portal protein
RIR1_EBVA8Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC ...
RIR2_EBVA8Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase small subunit (EC ...
RTA_EBVA8Replication and transcription activator (Rta) (Immediate-early protein Rta)
SCAF_EBVA8Capsid scaffolding protein (Capsid protein P40) (Protease precursor) (pPR) ...
TEG7_EBVA8Tegument protein UL51 homolog
TRM3_EBVA8Tripartite terminase subunit 3 (EC 3.1.-.-) (Terminase large subunit)
UL92_EBVA8Uncharacterized protein BDLF4

56 entries

Epstein-Barr virus (strain GD1) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4)

Select_all Deselect_all  
AN_EBVGShutoff alkaline exonuclease (SOX) (EC 3.1.-.-)
BALF1_EBVGApoptosis regulator BALF1
BARF1_EBVGSecreted protein BARF1 (33 kDa early protein) (p33)
BKRF4_EBVGTegument protein BKRF4
BLLF2_EBVGUncharacterized protein BLLF2
BLRF2_EBVGTegument protein BLRF2
BNL2B_EBVGUncharacterized protein BNLF2b
BRRF1_EBVGTranscriptional activator BRRF1
BRRF2_EBVGTegument protein BRRF2
BTRF1_EBVGUncharacterized protein BTRF1
BZLF1_EBVGTrans-activator protein BZLF1 (EB1) (Zebra)
CEP1_EBVGCytoplasmic envelopment protein 1
CEP2_EBVGCytoplasmic envelopment protein 2
CVC2_EBVGCapsid vertex component 2
DNBI_EBVGMajor DNA-binding protein
DPOL_EBVGDNA polymerase catalytic subunit (EC
DUT_EBVGDeoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) (EC (dUTP ...
EAD_EBVGDNA polymerase processivity factor BMRF1 (Early antigen protein D) (EA-D) ...
EAR_EBVGApoptosis regulator BHRF1 (Early antigen protein R) (EA-R) (Nuclear antigen)
EBNA1_EBVGEpstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) (EBV nuclear antigen 1)
EBNA2_EBVGEpstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) (EBV nuclear antigen 2)
EBNA3_EBVGEpstein-Barr nuclear antigen 3 (EBNA-3) (EBV nuclear antigen 3) (Epstein-Barr ...
EBNA4_EBVGEpstein-Barr nuclear antigen 4 (EBNA-4) (EBV nuclear antigen 4) (Epstein-Barr ...
EBNA5_EBVGEpstein-Barr nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) (EBV nuclear antigen ...
EBNA6_EBVGEpstein-Barr nuclear antigen 6 (EBNA-6) (EBV nuclear antigen 6) (Epstein-Barr ...
GB_EBVGEnvelope glycoprotein B (gB)
GH_EBVGEnvelope glycoprotein H (gH)
GL_EBVGEnvelope glycoprotein L (gL)
GM_EBVGEnvelope glycoprotein M (gM)
GN_EBVGEnvelope glycoprotein N
GP350_EBVGEnvelope glycoprotein GP350 (Membrane antigen) (MA)
GP42_EBVGGlycoprotein 42 (gp42)
ICP27_EBVGmRNA export factor ICP27 homolog (Mta) (ORF57 protein homolog) (Protein SM)
IL10H_EBVGViral interleukin-10 homolog (vIL-10) (20 kDa protein) (Protein BCRF1)
ITP_EBVGInner tegument protein
KITH_EBVGThymidine kinase (EC
KR2_EBVGSerine/threonine-protein kinase BGLF4 (EC
LF1_EBVGUncharacterized LF1 protein
LF2_EBVGProtein LF2
LF3_EBVGUncharacterized protein LF3
LMP1_EBVGLatent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) (Protein p63)
LMP2_EBVGLatent membrane protein 2 (Terminal protein)
LTP_EBVGLarge tegument protein deneddylase (EC (EC 3.4.22.-)
MCP_EBVGMajor capsid protein (MCP)
MTP_EBVGMajor tegument protein (MTP) (Protein p140)
PORTL_EBVGPortal protein
RIR1_EBVGRibonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC ...
RIR2_EBVGRibonucleoside-diphosphate reductase small subunit (EC ...
RPMS1_EBVGUncharacterized protein RPMS1
RTA_EBVGReplication and transcription activator (Rta) (Immediate-early protein Rta)
SCAF_EBVGCapsid scaffolding protein (Capsid protein P40) (Protease precursor) (pPR) ...
TEG7_EBVGTegument protein UL51 homolog
TRM3_EBVGTripartite terminase subunit 3 (EC 3.1.-.-) (Terminase large subunit)

1 entry

Epstein-Barr virus (strain Cao) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4)

LMP1_EBVCLatent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) (Protein p63)

1 entry

Epstein-Barr virus (strain P3HR-1) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4)

VGP3_EBVP3Envelope glycoprotein GP340 (Membrane antigen) (MA)

1 entry

Epstein-Barr virus (strain Raji) (HHV-4) (Human herpesvirus 4)

LMP1_EBVRLatent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) (Protein p63)