Enveloped, spherical to pleomorphic, 150-200 nm in diameter, T=16 icosahedral symmetry. Capsid consists of 162 capsomers and is surrounded by an amorphous tegument. Glycoproteins complexes are embedded in the lipid envelope.


Monopartite, linear, dsDNA genome of about 180 kb. The genome contains terminal and internal reiterated sequences.


Each viral transcript usually encodes a single protein and has a promoter/regulatory sequence, a TATA box, a transcription initiation site, a 5’ leader sequence of 30-300 bp (not translated), a 3’ untranslated sequence of 10-30 bp, and a poly A signal. There are many gene overlaps. There are only few spliced genes. Some of the expressed ORFs are antisense to each other. Some ORFs can be accessed from more than one promoter. Certain proteins are downregulated translationaly by a leaky scanning from an upstream ORF.



Lytic replication:

  1. Attachment of the viral glycoproteins to host receptors mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell.
  2. Fusion with the plasma membrane to release the core and the tegument proteins into the host cytoplasm.
  3. The capsid is transported to the nuclear pore where the viral DNA is released into the nucleus.
  4. Transcription of immediate early genes which promote transcription of early genes and protect the virus against innate host immunity.
  5. Transcription of early viral mRNA by host polymerase II, encoding proteins involved in replication of the viral DNA.
  6. A first round of circular genome amplification occurs by bidirectional replication
  7. Synthesis of linear concatemer copies of viral DNA by rolling circle.
  8. Transcription of late mRNAs by host polymerase II, encoding structural proteins.
  9. Assembly of the virus in nuclear viral factories and budding through the inner lamella of the nuclear membrane which has been modified by the insertion of herpes glycoproteins, throughout the Golgi and final release at the plasma membrane.

Latent replication : replication of circular viral episome in tandem with the host cell DNA using the host cell replication machinery.

Host-virus interaction

Adaptive immune response inhibition

Kaposi proteins MIR1/K3 and MIR2/K5 are E3 ubiquitin ligase which promote the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of host MHC-I and CD1D molecules, thereby inhibiting the host adaptive immune response.

Apoptosis modulation

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes a viral FLICE inhibitory protein that blocks apoptosis .

Autophagy modulation

The KSHV v-Bcl-2 inhibits host autophagy by interacting with host beclin-1 .

Cell-cycle modulation

KSHV v-cyclin encoded by ORF72, is a cyclin-like protein that shares homology to cellular D-type cyclins. Like human cyclins, v-cyclin interacts with cdk4 and cdk6 to activate these kinases and promote the G1/S phase transition. The conserved UL24 family of human alpha, beta and gamma herpesviruses induces a cell cycle arrest at G2/M transition through inactivation of the host cyclinB/cdc2 complex. EBV encodes an UL24 homolog termed ORF20 that should perform this role .

Innate immune response inhibition

Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) has developed unique mechanisms to modulate host immune system by incorporating viral homologs to several cellular regulatory genes into its genome. For instance, vIRF-1 is able to bind to both IRF-3 and IRF-7 and efficiently inhibits the formation of transcriptionally competent IRF-3-CBP/p300 complexes .

Splicing inhibition

KSHV ORF57 modulates the viral and host mRNA expression by exporting unspliced mRNA, thereby inducing alternative splicing .

Matching UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries

180 entries grouped by strain (browse by keywords)

All proteins are shown (view only 163 complete proteome entries)

85 entries

Human herpesvirus 8 type P (isolate GK18) (HHV-8) (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) reference strain

Select_all Deselect_all  
AN_HHV8PShutoff alkaline exonuclease (SOX) (EC 3.1.-.-)
ARBH_HHV8PApoptosis regulator Bcl-2 homolog
CEP1_HHV8PCytoplasmic envelopment protein 1
CEP2_HHV8PCytoplasmic envelopment protein 2
CEP3_HHV8PCytoplasmic envelopment protein 3
CVC1_HHV8PCapsid vertex component 1
CVC2_HHV8PCapsid vertex component 2
DNBI_HHV8PMajor DNA-binding protein
DPOL_HHV8PDNA polymerase catalytic subunit (EC (EC
DUT_HHV8PDeoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) (EC (dUTP ...
DYR_HHV8PPutative Dihydrofolate reductase (EC
GB_HHV8PEnvelope glycoprotein B (gB)
GH_HHV8PEnvelope glycoprotein H (gH)
GL_HHV8PEnvelope glycoprotein L (gL)
GM_HHV8PEnvelope glycoprotein M (gM)
GN_HHV8PEnvelope glycoprotein N
HELI_HHV8PDNA replication helicase (EC 3.6.4.-)
HEPA_HHV8PDNA helicase/primase complex-associated protein (HEPA) (Primase-associated ...
ICP27_HHV8PmRNA export factor ICP27 homolog (EB2 protein homolog)
ITP_HHV8PInner tegument protein
K12_HHV8PProtein K12
K15_HHV8PProtein K15
K1_HHV8PProtein K1
K42_HHV8PProtein K4.2
K6_HHV8PProtein K6
K7_HHV8PProtein K7
K81_HHV8PProtein K8.1
KBZIP_HHV8PE3 SUMO-protein ligase K-bZIP (EC 6.3.2.-)
KITH_HHV8PThymidine kinase (EC
LTP_HHV8PLarge tegument protein deneddylase (EC (EC 3.4.22.-)
MCP_HHV8PMajor capsid protein (MCP)
MIR1_HHV8PE3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MIR1 (EC (IE1B protein) (Modulator of ...
MIR2_HHV8PE3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MIR2 (EC (IE1A protein) (Modulator of ...
NEC1_HHV8PNuclear egress protein 1
NEC2_HHV8PNuclear egress protein 2
ORF10_HHV8PProtein ORF10
ORF11_HHV8PProtein ORF11
ORF23_HHV8PProtein ORF23
ORF24_HHV8PProtein ORF24
ORF27_HHV8PProtein ORF27
ORF28_HHV8PProtein ORF28
ORF30_HHV8PProtein ORF30
ORF35_HHV8PProtein ORF35
ORF36_HHV8PProtein ORF36 (EC 2.7.-.-)
ORF45_HHV8PProtein ORF45
ORF48_HHV8PTegument protein ORF48
ORF49_HHV8PProtein ORF49
ORF4_HHV8PComplement control protein (KCP)
ORF50_HHV8PPutative transcription activator ORF50
ORF52_HHV8PTegument protein ORF52
ORF58_HHV8PProtein ORF58
ORF73_HHV8PProtein ORF73
ORF75_HHV8PProtein ORF75
OX2V_HHV8POX-2 membrane glycoprotein homolog (Viral OX2) (vOX2)
PAP_HHV8PDNA polymerase processivity factor
PORTL_HHV8PPortal protein
PRIM_HHV8PDNA primase (EC 2.7.7.-)
RIR1_HHV8PRibonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC ...
RIR2_HHV8PRibonucleoside-diphosphate reductase small subunit (EC ...
SCAF_HHV8PCapsid scaffolding protein (Capsid protein P40) (Protease precursor) (pPR)
SCP_HHV8PSmall capsomere-interacting protein
TEG7_HHV8PTegument protein ORF55
TRM1_HHV8PTripartite terminase subunit 1
TRM2_HHV8PTripartite terminase subunit 2
TRM3_HHV8PTripartite terminase subunit 3 (EC 3.1.-.-) (Terminase large subunit)
TRX1_HHV8PTriplex capsid protein 1
TRX2_HHV8PTriplex capsid protein 2
TYSY_HHV8PThymidylate synthase (TS) (TSase) (EC
UL24_HHV8PProtein UL24 homolog
UL32_HHV8PPackaging protein UL32 homolog
UL49_HHV8PProtein ORF66
UL79_HHV8PProtein UL79 homolog
UL92_HHV8PProtein ORF31
UL95_HHV8PProtein UL95 homolog
UNG_HHV8PUracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) (EC (UNG)
VCCL3_HHV8PProtein vCCL3
VCYCL_HHV8Pviral cyclin homolog (v-cyclin)
VFLIP_HHV8PViral FLICE protein (vFLIP)
VGPCR_HHV8Pviral G-protein coupled receptor (vGPCR) (Protein ORF74)
VIL6_HHV8PViral interleukin-6 homolog (vIL-6)
VIRF2_HHV8PViral IRF2-like protein (vIRF-2)
VIRF3_HHV8PViral IRF3-like protein (VIRF-3)
VIRF4_HHV8PViral IRF4-like protein (vIRF-4)
VMI2_HHV8PViral macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (Viral macrophage inflammatory protein ...

75 entries

Saimiriine herpesvirus 2 (strain 11) (SaHV-2) (Herpesvirus saimiri) reference strain

Select_all Deselect_all  
AN_SHV21Shutoff alkaline exonuclease (SOX) (EC 3.1.-.-)
BRLF1_SHV21Putative transcription activator BRLF1 homolog (Transcription activator EDRF1)
CCPH_SHV21Complement control protein homolog (CCPH)
CD59_SHV21Surface glycoprotein CD59 homolog
CEP1_SHV21Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 1
CEP2_SHV21Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 2
CEP3_SHV21Cytoplasmic envelopment protein 3
CGH2_SHV21Cyclin homolog (V-cyclin)
CVC1_SHV21Capsid vertex component 1
CVC2_SHV21Capsid vertex component 2
DNBI_SHV21Major DNA-binding protein
DPOL_SHV21DNA polymerase catalytic subunit (EC
DUT_SHV21Deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) (EC (dUTP ...
DYR_SHV21Viral dihydrofolate reductase (vDHFR) (EC
GB_SHV21Envelope glycoprotein B (gB)
GCVK_SHV21Probable ganciclovir kinase (EC 2.7.1.-)
GH_SHV21Envelope glycoprotein H (gH)
GL_SHV21Envelope glycoprotein L (gL)
GM_SHV21Envelope glycoprotein M (gM)
GN_SHV21Envelope glycoprotein N
HELI_SHV21DNA replication helicase (EC 3.6.4.-)
ICP22_SHV21Transcriptional regulator ICP22 homolog (Immediate-early protein)
ICP27_SHV21mRNA export factor ICP27 homolog (52 kDa immediate-early phosphoprotein) (EB2 ...
IL17_SHV21Viral interleukin-17 (vIL-17) (Immediate early gene 13 protein)
ITP_SHV21Inner tegument protein
KITH_SHV21Thymidine kinase (EC
LTP_SHV21Large tegument protein deneddylase (EC (EC 3.4.22.-)
MCP_SHV21Major capsid protein (MCP)
NEC1_SHV21Nuclear egress protein 1
NEC2_SHV21Nuclear egress protein 2
PORTL_SHV21Portal protein
PRIM_SHV21DNA primase (EC 2.7.7.-)
RIR1_SHV21Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit (R1) (EC ...
RIR2_SHV21Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase small subunit (EC ...
SCAF_SHV21Capsid scaffolding protein (Capsid protein P40) (Protease precursor) (pPR)
SCP_SHV21Small capsomere-interacting protein
TEG7_SHV21Gene 55 protein
TRM1_SHV21Tripartite terminase subunit 1
TRM3_SHV21Tripartite terminase subunit 3 (EC 3.1.-.-) (Terminase large subunit)
TRX1_SHV21Triplex capsid protein 1
TRX2_SHV21Triplex capsid protein 2
TSTP_SHV21Transforming protein STP
TYSY_SHV21Thymidylate synthase (TS) (TSase) (EC
UL24_SHV21Protein UL24 homolog
UL32_SHV21Packaging protein UL32
UL49_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 66 protein
UL79_SHV21Gene 18 protein
UL87_SHV21Gene 24 protein
UL91_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 30 protein
UL92_SHV21Gene 31 protein
UL95_SHV21Gene 34 protein
UL96_SHV21Gene 35 protein
UNG_SHV21Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) (EC (UNG)
VG05_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 5 protein
VG10_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 10 protein
VG11_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 11 protein
VG12_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 12 protein
VG16_SHV21Bcl-2-like gene 16 protein
VG23_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 23 protein
VG27_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 27 protein
VG28_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 28 protein
VG40_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 40 protein
VG41_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 41 protein
VG45_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 45 protein
VG48_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 48 protein
VG49_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 49 protein
VG51_SHV21Gene 51 glycoprotein
VG52_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 52 protein
VG58_SHV21Gene 58 protein
VG59_SHV21Gene 59 protein
VG71_SHV21Uncharacterized gene 71 protein
VG74_SHV21G-protein coupled receptor homolog ECRF3
VIEG_SHV21Immediate-early protein IE-G
VP03_SHV21Probable membrane antigen 3 (Tegument protein)
VP75_SHV21Probable membrane antigen 75 (Tegument protein)

6 entries

Saimiriine herpesvirus 2 (strain 488) (SaHV-2) (Herpesvirus saimiri)

Select_all Deselect_all  
DYR_SHV2CViral dihydrofolate reductase (vDHFR) (EC
IL17_SHV2CViral interleukin-17 (vIL-17) (Immediate early gene 13 protein)
STP_SHV2CSaimiri transformation-associated protein (Collagen-like protein) (stpC)
TIP_SHV2CTyrosine-protein kinase-interacting protein (Tip)
YDH3_SHV2CUncharacterized 9.5 kDa protein in DHFR 3'region (ORF3)
YDH4_SHV2CUncharacterized 9.9 kDa protein in DHFR 3'region (ORF4)

3 entries

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (strain DN-599) (BoHV-4) (Movar virus)

Select_all Deselect_all  
BRLF1_BHV4DPutative transcription activator BRLF1 homolog
GCNT3_BHV4DBeta-1,3-galactosyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein ...
VIE1_BHV4DProbable E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase IE1 (EC (32.7 kDa immediate ...

3 entries

Saimiriine herpesvirus 2 (strain 484-77) (SaHV-2) (Herpesvirus saimiri)

Select_all Deselect_all  
DYR_SHV24Viral dihydrofolate reductase (vDHFR) (EC
STP_SHV24Saimiri transformation-associated protein (Collagen-like protein) (stpC)
TIP_SHV24Tyrosine-protein kinase-interacting protein (Tip)

2 entries

Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) (Murine gammaherpesvirus 68)

Select_all Deselect_all  
LTP_MHV68Large tegument protein deneddylase (EC (EC 3.4.22.-)
MIR1_MHV68E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MIR1 (EC (MK3) (Modulator of immune ...

1 entry

Ateline herpesvirus 3 (AtHV-3) (Herpesvirus ateles)

TIO_ATHV3Protein tio

1 entry

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) (Movar virus)

GCNT3_BHV4Beta-1,3-galactosyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein ...

1 entry

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (strain LVR140) (BoHV-4) (Movar virus)

GCNT3_BHV4LBeta-1,3-galactosyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein ...

1 entry

Bovine herpesvirus 4 (strain V. test) (BoHV-4) (Movar virus)

GCNT3_BHV4VBeta-1,3-galactosyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein ...

1 entry

Herpesvirus ateles

TYSY_HSVATThymidylate synthase (TS) (TSase) (EC

1 entry

Saimiriine herpesvirus 2 (strain 484) (SaHV-2) (Herpesvirus saimiri)

TIP_SHV48Tyrosine protein kinase-interacting protein (Tip) (TipC484)